If Human relationships are said to more or less mirror the animal world, then wouldn’t it also make sense for Humanity to naturally be monogamous as evidence of this is shown within Nature, particularly within birds?
by University of Chicago
The males of species that form long-lasting pair-bonds, like many birds, often continue to make elaborate displays of plumage, colors and dances after they mate with a female. While their time and energy might be better spent taking care of their offspring, these displays also encourage the female to invest more of their energy into the brood.
But why all this attention between mates when the males could just increase their odds of procreating by seeking out as many mates as possible? A new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by biologists at the University of Chicago and the University of North Carolina explains how this form of sexual cooperation and bonding evolves.
“Many bird researchers can tell a story like the experience I once had in the UK. I caught a female goldfinch, placed her in a bird bag and carried it back to the banding station. All the way back to the station, her mate followed, calling,” said UChicago biologist Trevor Price, Ph.D., senior author of the new study. “He waited impatiently in a nearby tree as I banded the female, and when I released her the pair flew off together in close company, twittering. This kind of thing happens in many other species, too, so forming a strong pair bond and emotional attachments between a male and female is evidently not only a feature of humans.”
In contrast to theories of sexual selection that predict males have the most to gain by seeking out as many mates as possible, evolutionary explanations for the opposite kinds of behavior—loyalty to one mate, teamwork and private displays between pairs—have been harder to explain. The new paper shows how these behaviors often inevitably evolve in species that form pair bonds.
Sticking around and showing off
Many experiments in birds, and some in fish, have now shown that a male that displays more vigorously, makes a sweeter song or carries a more attractive color stimulates his mate to invest more in their brood. For example, in the 1980s Nancy Burley famously showed that placing red color bands on a male zebra finch’s legs results in his mate working harder for the brood, and consequently raising more of their young.
Findings like this are commonplace. They seem strange, but are readily explained if the extra stimulation by the male exploits the cues a female is already using in other contexts. For example, zebra finches have red beaks already; Perhaps the more of the color red on display, the greater the excitement because it elevates the female’s hormone levels. But while the appearance of the flashy display that stimulates females may be good for the male (he has more offspring), it is likely bad for the female to invest more (she has to work harder, affecting her chances of successfully raising more offspring in the future).
Using a mathematical population genetic model, Price, Maria Servedio, Ph.D., from the University of North Carolina, and their colleagues show how these scenarios could play out to the species’ advantage by weighing the costs of their investment with the number of hatchlings they can raise over many generations.
For example, say the females of a species usually lay three eggs and their partner helps them to raise the young, but a male with increased blue coloration causes his mate to lay four eggs. The blue males have more offspring than duller males, so blue males become increasingly common over generations.
However, raising the extra young comes at a great cost to the females, so a female who lays only three eggs has an advantage over one laying four, and these females become increasingly common. At the end of this process, all males are blue and all females lay three eggs. But now, if the male does not create a display, females would only lay two eggs, which is not good for either one of them.
In other words, males have to stick around and show off for both the male and the female to get maximum benefits. The evolutionary process can be repeated many times with another color or kind of display. In the end the female can become so dependent on multiple aspects of the male’s display that without the display she barely ovulates, as has been shown for ring doves.
“The models enable us to see the wide ranges of conditions that can cause displays to become stuck in the population, evolutionarily, and that can lead to this result,” Servedio said.
A strong evolutionary footing for fidelity
More than 80 years ago, the British biologist Julian Huxley wrote about bird displays, stating that, “Competition between males for mates, accompanied by any form of female choice is not the common phenomenon postulated by Darwin….in most monogamous birds, display begins only after pairing up for the season has occurred.” He then went on to discuss how these displays contribute to a strengthening of the pair bond.
“Huxley was on to something back then, but his ideas have largely been ignored for a lack of understanding about how this could evolve,” Price said. “We think this new research places affection between members of a pair, and mate fidelity, on a strong evolutionary footing.”
More information: Maria R. Servedio el al., “Evolution of sexual cooperation from sexual conflict,” PNAS (2019). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1904138116
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Provided by University of Chicago
Just like how we may choose to interact with each other through many different modes of communication, we may see how quantum particles behave.
We first are stirred by a Soul-deep intention. Are we frustrated, angry, or sad? Or do we wish to express Love? This describes the “depth” aspect of our communication, for it is the raw, pure seed of the particular information we are seeking to relate to others. It is the WHY.
The next layer describes what exactly we want to convey to the other person through the words and actions we choose. Is it good news or bad news? Is it a discovery? What is important? This may be likened to the “height” aspect of what we are communicating. It is the WHAT.
We demonstrate in another dimensional fold its “width” by choosing a channel to send our signal through, such as direct in-person verbal speech, text messages, phone calls, video calls, indirect body language, and telepathy. It is the HOW.
To give it life, we must choose a place in time and space to deliver this message. Therefore, it exhibits the 4th dimensional quality of WHEN and WHERE.
And learning this dimensional order of operations goes on as we evolve and experience higher levels of Reality.
In this way, scientists have discovered how to deliver information in very unique and particular ways depending upon the shape and atomic structure of the quantum particle. They report this phenomenon by shining a laser into a cadmium-selenide semiconductor quantum ring (two dimensional photon emitter), as depicted below, where they had stretched it to an oval shape. In doing so, this caused the photons it emitted to produce “light along one axis”, like a sort of antenna.
The purpose of these quantum semiconductors is to “write” information into them whereby they may be delivered by the photons they emit. This is how quantum topological applications work. The top, surface layer of an entity or a particle is the complete “visual” collection of the data within that said entity or particle, by which its body may be deformed to produce a unique display of its information. Likewise, the very same can be said about our Souls and the “light” or body we emit into physical Reality, for it appears to be the definite reflection of the Soul.
Merely, what we perceive as the solid body of an entity or particle is simply the wavelength we are most attuned to. As our Consciousness expands, so do our perceptions of these wavelengths, and our eyes expand to the great vastness of new, literally sensational colors. In this way, we will be aware of even greater modes of communication on both the quantum and personal levels.
And perhaps this will shed some photonic light on the power of mandalas?
by Joseph E. Harmon, Argonne National Laboratory
Particles that are mere nanometers in size are at the forefront of scientific research today. They come in many different shapes: rods, spheres, cubes, vesicles, S-shaped worms and even donut-like rings. What makes them worthy of scientific study is that, being so tiny, they exhibit quantum mechanical properties not possible with larger objects.
Researchers at the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility located at DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory, have contributed to a recently published Nature Communications paper that reports the cause behind a key quantum property of donut-like nanoparticles called “semiconductor quantum rings.” This property may find application in quantum information storage, communication, and computing in future technologies.
In this project, the CNM researchers collaborated with colleagues from the University of Chicago, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, University of Ottawa and National Research Council in Canada.
The team assembled circular rings made out of cadmium selenide, a semiconductor that lends itself to growing donut-shaped nanoparticles. These quantum rings are two-dimensional structures—crystalline materials composed of a few layers of atoms. The advantage of semiconductors is that when researchers excite them with a laser, they emit photons.
“If you illuminate a two-dimensional photon emitter with a laser, you expect them to emit light along two axes,” said Xuedan Ma, assistant scientist at CNM. “But what you expect is not necessarily what you get. To our surprise, these two-dimensional rings can emit light along one axis.”
The team observed this effect when breaking the perfect rotational symmetry of the donut shape, causing them to be slightly elongated. “By this symmetry breaking,” says Ma, “we can change the direction of light emission. We can thus control how photons come out of the donut and achieve coherent directional control.”
Because the photons in the light emits from these rings along a single direction, rather than spreading out in all directions, researchers can tune this emission to effectively collect single photons. With this control, researchers can integrate topology information into the photons, which can then be used as messengers for carrying quantum information. It may even be possible to exploit these encoded photons for quantum networking and computation.
“If we can gain even greater control over the fabrication process, we could make nanoparticles with different shapes such as a clover with multiple holes or a rectangle with a hole in the center,” noted Matthew Otten, a Maria Goeppert Mayer Fellow at Argonne’s CNM. “Then, we might be able to encode more types of quantum information or more information into the nanoparticles.”
“I should add that geometry is not the only factor in causing this quantum effect. The atomistic structure of the material also counts, as is often the case in nanoscale materials,” said Ma.
A paper based on the study, “Uniaxial transition dipole moments in semiconductor quantum rings caused by broken rotational symmetry,” appeared recently in Nature Communications. In addition to Ma and Otten, authors include Nicolai F. Hartmann, Igor Fedin, Dmitri Talapin, Moritz Cygorek, Pawel Hawrylak, Marek Korkusinski, Stephen Gray and Achim Hartschuh.
More information: Nicolai F. Hartmann et al, Uniaxial transition dipole moments in semiconductor quantum rings caused by broken rotational symmetry, Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11225-6