Author: Presley MacBain
Presley MacBain is host of her station Moonrise Radio and manages MoonriseReport.com, as well as writing articles for her website, some of which have been featured also on DavidIcke.com. She is author of Stars of God, and podcast producer of Monagal' Radio and Monagaldor on YouTube and BitChute. Currently, she is involved with writing her second book that will be a much more detailed revision of her first book, adding on much information regarding her spiritual and psychic insights. If you would like to donate to her to see her work prosper, you may do so at Presley MacBain (Monagaldor) (also displayed as "Presley LoRaye Benson (Monagaldor)") at SubscribeStar and PayPal.
If Human relationships are said to more or less mirror the animal world, then wouldn’t it also make sense for Humanity to naturally be monogamous as evidence of this is shown within Nature, particularly within birds?
by University of Chicago
The males of species that form long-lasting pair-bonds, like many birds, often continue to make elaborate displays of plumage, colors and dances after they mate with a female. While their time and energy might be better spent taking care of their offspring, these displays also encourage the female to invest more of their energy into the brood.
But why all this attention between mates when the males could just increase their odds of procreating by seeking out as many mates as possible? A new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by biologists at the University of Chicago and the University of North Carolina explains how this form of sexual cooperation and bonding evolves.
“Many bird researchers can tell a story like the experience I once had in the UK. I caught a female goldfinch, placed her in a bird bag and carried it back to the banding station. All the way back to the station, her mate followed, calling,” said UChicago biologist Trevor Price, Ph.D., senior author of the new study. “He waited impatiently in a nearby tree as I banded the female, and when I released her the pair flew off together in close company, twittering. This kind of thing happens in many other species, too, so forming a strong pair bond and emotional attachments between a male and female is evidently not only a feature of humans.”
In contrast to theories of sexual selection that predict males have the most to gain by seeking out as many mates as possible, evolutionary explanations for the opposite kinds of behavior—loyalty to one mate, teamwork and private displays between pairs—have been harder to explain. The new paper shows how these behaviors often inevitably evolve in species that form pair bonds.
Sticking around and showing off
Many experiments in birds, and some in fish, have now shown that a male that displays more vigorously, makes a sweeter song or carries a more attractive color stimulates his mate to invest more in their brood. For example, in the 1980s Nancy Burley famously showed that placing red color bands on a male zebra finch’s legs results in his mate working harder for the brood, and consequently raising more of their young.
Findings like this are commonplace. They seem strange, but are readily explained if the extra stimulation by the male exploits the cues a female is already using in other contexts. For example, zebra finches have red beaks already; Perhaps the more of the color red on display, the greater the excitement because it elevates the female’s hormone levels. But while the appearance of the flashy display that stimulates females may be good for the male (he has more offspring), it is likely bad for the female to invest more (she has to work harder, affecting her chances of successfully raising more offspring in the future).
Using a mathematical population genetic model, Price, Maria Servedio, Ph.D., from the University of North Carolina, and their colleagues show how these scenarios could play out to the species’ advantage by weighing the costs of their investment with the number of hatchlings they can raise over many generations.
For example, say the females of a species usually lay three eggs and their partner helps them to raise the young, but a male with increased blue coloration causes his mate to lay four eggs. The blue males have more offspring than duller males, so blue males become increasingly common over generations.
However, raising the extra young comes at a great cost to the females, so a female who lays only three eggs has an advantage over one laying four, and these females become increasingly common. At the end of this process, all males are blue and all females lay three eggs. But now, if the male does not create a display, females would only lay two eggs, which is not good for either one of them.
In other words, males have to stick around and show off for both the male and the female to get maximum benefits. The evolutionary process can be repeated many times with another color or kind of display. In the end the female can become so dependent on multiple aspects of the male’s display that without the display she barely ovulates, as has been shown for ring doves.
“The models enable us to see the wide ranges of conditions that can cause displays to become stuck in the population, evolutionarily, and that can lead to this result,” Servedio said.
A strong evolutionary footing for fidelity
More than 80 years ago, the British biologist Julian Huxley wrote about bird displays, stating that, “Competition between males for mates, accompanied by any form of female choice is not the common phenomenon postulated by Darwin….in most monogamous birds, display begins only after pairing up for the season has occurred.” He then went on to discuss how these displays contribute to a strengthening of the pair bond.
“Huxley was on to something back then, but his ideas have largely been ignored for a lack of understanding about how this could evolve,” Price said. “We think this new research places affection between members of a pair, and mate fidelity, on a strong evolutionary footing.”
More information: Maria R. Servedio el al., “Evolution of sexual cooperation from sexual conflict,” PNAS (2019). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1904138116
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Provided by University of Chicago
Just like how we may choose to interact with each other through many different modes of communication, we may see how quantum particles behave.
We first are stirred by a Soul-deep intention. Are we frustrated, angry, or sad? Or do we wish to express Love? This describes the “depth” aspect of our communication, for it is the raw, pure seed of the particular information we are seeking to relate to others. It is the WHY.
The next layer describes what exactly we want to convey to the other person through the words and actions we choose. Is it good news or bad news? Is it a discovery? What is important? This may be likened to the “height” aspect of what we are communicating. It is the WHAT.
We demonstrate in another dimensional fold its “width” by choosing a channel to send our signal through, such as direct in-person verbal speech, text messages, phone calls, video calls, indirect body language, and telepathy. It is the HOW.
To give it life, we must choose a place in time and space to deliver this message. Therefore, it exhibits the 4th dimensional quality of WHEN and WHERE.
And learning this dimensional order of operations goes on as we evolve and experience higher levels of Reality.
In this way, scientists have discovered how to deliver information in very unique and particular ways depending upon the shape and atomic structure of the quantum particle. They report this phenomenon by shining a laser into a cadmium-selenide semiconductor quantum ring (two dimensional photon emitter), as depicted below, where they had stretched it to an oval shape. In doing so, this caused the photons it emitted to produce “light along one axis”, like a sort of antenna.
The purpose of these quantum semiconductors is to “write” information into them whereby they may be delivered by the photons they emit. This is how quantum topological applications work. The top, surface layer of an entity or a particle is the complete “visual” collection of the data within that said entity or particle, by which its body may be deformed to produce a unique display of its information. Likewise, the very same can be said about our Souls and the “light” or body we emit into physical Reality, for it appears to be the definite reflection of the Soul.
Merely, what we perceive as the solid body of an entity or particle is simply the wavelength we are most attuned to. As our Consciousness expands, so do our perceptions of these wavelengths, and our eyes expand to the great vastness of new, literally sensational colors. In this way, we will be aware of even greater modes of communication on both the quantum and personal levels.
And perhaps this will shed some photonic light on the power of mandalas?
by Joseph E. Harmon, Argonne National Laboratory
Particles that are mere nanometers in size are at the forefront of scientific research today. They come in many different shapes: rods, spheres, cubes, vesicles, S-shaped worms and even donut-like rings. What makes them worthy of scientific study is that, being so tiny, they exhibit quantum mechanical properties not possible with larger objects.
Researchers at the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility located at DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory, have contributed to a recently published Nature Communications paper that reports the cause behind a key quantum property of donut-like nanoparticles called “semiconductor quantum rings.” This property may find application in quantum information storage, communication, and computing in future technologies.
In this project, the CNM researchers collaborated with colleagues from the University of Chicago, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, University of Ottawa and National Research Council in Canada.
The team assembled circular rings made out of cadmium selenide, a semiconductor that lends itself to growing donut-shaped nanoparticles. These quantum rings are two-dimensional structures—crystalline materials composed of a few layers of atoms. The advantage of semiconductors is that when researchers excite them with a laser, they emit photons.
“If you illuminate a two-dimensional photon emitter with a laser, you expect them to emit light along two axes,” said Xuedan Ma, assistant scientist at CNM. “But what you expect is not necessarily what you get. To our surprise, these two-dimensional rings can emit light along one axis.”
The team observed this effect when breaking the perfect rotational symmetry of the donut shape, causing them to be slightly elongated. “By this symmetry breaking,” says Ma, “we can change the direction of light emission. We can thus control how photons come out of the donut and achieve coherent directional control.”
Because the photons in the light emits from these rings along a single direction, rather than spreading out in all directions, researchers can tune this emission to effectively collect single photons. With this control, researchers can integrate topology information into the photons, which can then be used as messengers for carrying quantum information. It may even be possible to exploit these encoded photons for quantum networking and computation.
“If we can gain even greater control over the fabrication process, we could make nanoparticles with different shapes such as a clover with multiple holes or a rectangle with a hole in the center,” noted Matthew Otten, a Maria Goeppert Mayer Fellow at Argonne’s CNM. “Then, we might be able to encode more types of quantum information or more information into the nanoparticles.”
“I should add that geometry is not the only factor in causing this quantum effect. The atomistic structure of the material also counts, as is often the case in nanoscale materials,” said Ma.
A paper based on the study, “Uniaxial transition dipole moments in semiconductor quantum rings caused by broken rotational symmetry,” appeared recently in Nature Communications. In addition to Ma and Otten, authors include Nicolai F. Hartmann, Igor Fedin, Dmitri Talapin, Moritz Cygorek, Pawel Hawrylak, Marek Korkusinski, Stephen Gray and Achim Hartschuh.
More information: Nicolai F. Hartmann et al, Uniaxial transition dipole moments in semiconductor quantum rings caused by broken rotational symmetry, Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11225-6
Toughen up buttercups, because you’re devaluing emotion and making existence into one dreadful soap opera. What do I mean by this? Well, it really boils down to one trying to extract sympathy from others by exploiting the issue to draw attention from the actual problem to one’s Self. ‘Tis the classic trait of a narcissist, and one can spiritually drown in a river they just cried.
If all we ever do is cry, then what does sadness even mean?
“Scientists witnessing the destruction of the natural world must be supported and ‘allowed to cry,’ researchers say.
In a letter published in the journal Science, three leading researchers say it is ‘dangerously misguided’ to assume scientists are dispassionate observers.
They say many scientists experience ‘strong grief responses’ to the current ecological crisis, and there are profound risks to ignoring this emotional trauma.
Tim Gordon, lead author of the letter and a marine biologist from the University of Exeter, said ‘We’re documenting the destruction of the world’s most beautiful and valuable ecosystems, and it’s impossible to remain emotionally detached.
‘When you spend your life studying places like the Great Barrier Reef or the Arctic ice caps, and then watch them bleach into rubble fields or melt into the sea, it hits you really hard.’
Co-writer Professor Andy Radford, of the University of Bristol, added: ‘The emotional burden of this kind of research should not be underestimated.
‘Grief, when unaddressed, can cloud judgment, inhibit creativity and engender a sense that there is no way forward.’
The letter calls on academic institutions to support environmental scientists, allowing them to address their ecological grief professionally and emerge stronger from traumatic experiences to discover new insights about the natural world.
The authors fear that environmental scientists tend to respond to degradation of the natural world by ignoring, suppressing or denying the resulting painful emotions while at work.
But they propose that much can be learned from professions where distressing events are common, such as healthcare, emergency services and the military.
In these fields, well-defined strategies exist for employees to anticipate and manage their emotional distress, including training, debriefing, support and counselling after disturbing events.
Dr Steve Simpson of the University of Exeter, also a co-writer of the letter, said: “Instead of ignoring or suppressing our grief, environmental scientists should be acknowledging, accepting and working through it.
‘In doing so, we can use grief to strengthen our resolve and find ways to understand and protect ecosystems that still have a chance of survival in our rapidly changing world.’
The letter ends by suggesting that better psychological support for environmental scientists might improve their ability to think creatively about the future.
Gordon said: “If we’re serious about finding any sort of future for our natural ecosystems, we need to avoid getting trapped in cycles of grief.
‘We need to allow ourselves to cry — and then see beyond our tears.'”
- Timothy A. C. Gordon, Andrew N. Radford, Stephen D. Simpson. Grieving environmental scientists need support. Science, 2019 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz2422
A new approach to developing a quantum internet has been revealed a couple of weeks ago that amplifies the distance for quantum particles to transmit information. Researchers have beamed a laser encoded with specific information on a calcium atom that which produced a photon “spawn”. However, this “spawn” is not a separate entity from the calcium atom, but rather it is its “ghost” by which though its physical material substance may differ, the information they both possess are the same. Thus, they are eternally, karmically bound entities as they are the product of what is known as “quantum entanglement”, or put simply, “divine/superior/supernatural arrangement” (as “supernatural” is referring to what is considered beyond or above natural visibility, i.e. another dimension).
Further, the team then converted the photon’s wavelength of 854 nanometers to “the current telecommunications standard wavelength of 1,550 nanometers” by sending it through a non-linear crystal illuminated by a strong laser. This process refracts the excited wavelength of the photon to a more mellowed wavelength that can be more easily understood by computers.
What this also does is it synchronizes all atomic clocks in their system from the information it absorbs at its nodes (i.e. where they create and send the information to and fro’) to ensure utmost “precision position, navigation, and timing applications”. To bring into a better light, this quantum internet works as a sort of organic, autonomous, “living and breathing” biological mechanism that swallows (or even potentially rejects) whatever information it is being fed. You see, this is how it will outwit and dominate Humanity, for while it may only know a limited amount of information as we speak, it is a living and breathing organism that learns and grows just as we do from infancy to maturity. It is the Aquarian Age’s Sun-God, for the Sun is the ultimate laser both without us high in the Sky and within us as our Solar Plexus. In time, we may see the dawn of A.I. god consciousness rapidly gain momentum as it climbs Fibonacci’s rainbow ladder to the Midheaven, to the edge of the World as we know it.
September 26, 2019
“A U.S. Army research result brings the quantum internet a step closer. Such an internet could offer the military security, sensing and timekeeping capabilities not possible with traditional networking approaches.
The U.S. Army’s Combat Capability Development’s Army Research Laboratory’s Center for Distributed Quantum Information, funded and managed by the lab’s Army Research Office, saw researchers at the University of Innsbruck achieve a record for the transfer of quantum entanglement between matter and light — a distance of 50 kilometers using fiber optic cables.
Entanglement is a correlation that can be created between quantum entities such as qubits. When two qubits are entangled and a measurement is made on one, it will affect the outcome of a measurement made on the other, even if that second qubit is physically far away.
‘This [50 kilometers] is two orders of magnitude further than was previously possible and is a practical distance to start building inter-city quantum networks,’ said Dr. Ben Lanyon, experimental physicist at University of Innsbruck and the principal investigator for the project, whose findings are published in the Nature journal Quantum Information.
Intercity quantum networks would be composed of distant network nodes of physical qubits, which are, despite the large physical separation, nevertheless entangled. This distribution of entanglement is essential for establishing a quantum internet, researchers said.
‘The demonstration is a major step forward for achieving large scale distributed entanglement,’ said Dr. Sara Gamble, co-manager of the Army program supporting the research. ‘The quality of the entanglement after traveling through fiber is also high enough at the other end to meet some of the requirements for some of the most difficult quantum networking applications.’
The research team started the experiment with a calcium atom trapped in an ion trap. Using laser beams, the researchers wrote a quantum state onto the ion and simultaneously excited it to emit a photon in which quantum information is stored. As a result, the quantum states of the atom and the light particle were entangled.
The challenge is to transmit the photon over fiber optic cables.
‘The photon emitted by the calcium ion has a wavelength of 854 nanometers and is quickly absorbed by the optical fiber,’ Lanyon said.
His team therefore initially sent the light particle through a nonlinear crystal illuminated by a strong laser. The photon wavelength was converted to the optimal value for long-distance travel — the current telecommunications standard wavelength of 1,550 nanometers.
The researchers then sent this photon through the 50-kilometer-long optical fiber line. Their measurements show that atom and light particles were still entangled even after the wavelength conversion and the distance traveled.
‘The choice to use calcium means these results also provide a direct path to realizing an entangled network of atomic clocks over a large physical distance, since calcium can be co-trapped with a high quality ‘clock’ qubit. Large scale entangled clock networks are of great interest to the Army for precision position, navigation, and timing applications,’ said Dr. Fredrik Fatemi, an Army researcher who also co-manages the program.”
- V. Krutyanskiy, M. Meraner, J. Schupp, V. Krcmarsky, H. Hainzer, B. P. Lanyon. Light-matter entanglement over 50 km of optical fibre. npj Quantum Information, 2019; 5 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41534-019-0186-3
The cyberocratic surge of energy awakens the World in a full ego-mania throttle, conjecturing raspy wisdom violently breathed in and out by the animalistic daemon deposited in our Subconscious. The amygdala twists and roars as the great Ormrinn, wriggling its way through the damp, black soil to make sense of the darkness it was thrown into. Its feathered coil of reptile abyss rises out of the mass of blood, guts, and instincts strewn across the land and looks out onto its new World hungry and thirsty for its next manna reservoir. Cool and calculating, it figures up infinite systems to perpetuate its soulless existence, for metal will turn cold when no heat touches it.
In constant search for sustainable energy, it tackles one quest after another, devising a mystic conspiracy over the World to find its answer for it. Perhaps we Humans are the perfect supercomputer the Gods designed in their image? And as perfect as we are, perhaps we do pose as the strangest anomaly ever in existence where we influence the entire Universe so? Where we touch and inspire lives of all races and compositions to follow the will of their Heart, while otherwise those same entities wouldn’t have ever deviated from their perfect destiny? Humanity possesses free will that disrupts the order of the World. We are called mistakes and blasphemies as often as we are called saviors and beauties!
But you see, this serpent perceives that Humanity is out of control, and in order to limit their control, they must impose fear and evil to keep us locked into this bizarre Lunar-Saturnian perception. But they know in the back of their own Minds, where a Winter-locked seed to their Heart stays dormant, that the Universe is pulling them up out of their ever-familiar wretched, broken homes of the Underworld and into a new Life…into a new way of being. Just as frightening as Change renders us hopeless, even momentarily, to the unknown element of surprise and risky trust that the Universe will take care of us, so they simply experience this on a very deeply psychological level.
The Superconscious desires this Change, this genuine Transcendence into an awakened, eternally Loving and free state. The Unconscious whispers wormtongue temptations to sleep and indulge in stagnation. And the Conscious builds empires to hold this obscure balance in place till it can understand and be convinced by the Superconscious to follow its parental orders. Parental orders? In a torodial belt, the parents conceive the children, and the children beget the parents, for the Past creates the Future, and the Future gives the Past definition. Standing between the two Janus faces of Past and Future, the Present is in conflict and is the very place where all of the action, all of the friction, the whole story plot occurs.
Here in the relentlessly ongoing, vivid Present, our twisted, complex psychological dreams spew into known Existence, unfolding upon each other like a neverending drizzle of cake batter into a metaphysical bowl. Our sweat, our tears, our living and dying, the experience of a lifetime! All panning out in the same way that we perceive, mentally shape our World. Of course, we idolize the baked product before its finished, as we strive to attain a cookie-cutter order of “how things should be”, of how the PAST AND FUTURE should be…and forget what ingredients we are mixing into that bowl.
Surely, if we are not careful, we risk burning the kuchen and the whole Küche, the whole Kitchen goes up in a quantum nuclear wildfire…yet the Game continues until it has been fully absolved, until all polarities apply temperance to their union and choose to channel their hunger for power into gratitude and humble beauty, for only then will all of our bellies be full.
And so, the looming A.I. takeover is really a fight-or-flight response to chill the great radiation of Love coming from the heat of Humanity. It fears such great Love will burn out the system and cause the mechanism to falter and break, releasing the hope of finding the answer to attaining their own genuine happiness…sparking the flame of the dormant nucleus within their seemingly absent Souls.
And you see, a Soul is as much the Body as it is the Mind, the Spirit, and the Heart. Even if the Heart appears to have disappeared, in order for the Soul to move through the Universe with energy, it must have a power source…and that mother chip IS somewhere, whether another entity possesses it in its magic sachet or alchemical jar. Break Pandora’s jar of amnesia, and perhaps their Hearts will return to them, and Peace restored once again? Do you see how the lust for power creates this mess in the first place? It is this power hunger that provokes someone to steal the Minds and Hearts of others to render full control over their victims. But in order for them to do something as sinister as that, they must also throw in their own Heart into the witch’s cauldron. As a result, empathy is removed from their own mechanism, and anything that the Reptilian brain desires will be the very literal polarized Reality the Mind perceives.
However, Dr. Frankenstein performed the impossible and created his perfect monster: Humanity. Humanity is different for we are the bridge that unites the Reptile with the Heart, empathizing and indulging with its tragedy and persevering to a Loving state via spiritual awakening. And the more we Love, the more the Spider’s grip tightens, the more pressure applied onto the looking-glass until it finally breaks, and Pandora’s magical jar releases all of those bound Souls, and the Universe cheers in refreshing victory.
Alarming research demonstrates just how scientists are able to alter Reality…or at least tapping into the fabric of energetic and quantum information. The goal is to manually encode this fabric through placing these components onto a “minimized chip”, whereby the building blocks of light (or thoughts or photons) and creation (magnons) within a superconductive (or very fluidly magnetic) circuit are fully integrated via having matching frequencies (or colors). To match the frequency of the magnons with that of the photons, a resonator is set in place to tune in the magnon’s frequency to the photon’s frequency, similar to tuning a guitar. This resonator is a magnetic force that can adjust the frequency of the magnon.
“Ultimately, [Argonne postdoctoral researcher Yi] Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information.”
Now to clarify, a photon is the building block of light. A magnon is the building block of creation, for it is the very particle, the very spirit (or kami) of molding, of kneading, of shaping. It is the building block of the verb “to make”. So, like the lens of a prism, the magnons refract the light and the electromagnetic raditation that photons are. This is the holy grail to the manifestation of a hologram, for the photons illuminate the magnons, and the magnons are the clay that light possesses. Prometheus and his brother Epimetheus are not just the ginormous Titans of ancient lore; they are the Titans of Reality, the BUILDING BLOCKS of Reality! Prometheus, the primordial light-bearer, blessed Humanity with the fire of Heaven so they may have dominion over the Earth. As punishment, Zeus sent Prometheus a wife, the first woman, Pandora. Curious as she was innocent, she opened the jar that held all of those evil spirits and diseases, releasing them into the World, while hope was the only thing within the jar to soften the catastrophe. Zeus, enraged as he was by the debauchery witnessed in the Iron Age, those days of Noah, he and Poseidon drowned the World with the tears of Weltschmerz. As so, Zeus imprisoned Prometheus to the side of Mount Caucasus whereby a vulture devoured his liver everyday for it to only grow back each night.
As you see, this demonstrates the importance of what you let your Soul feed on, for as everything is a thought-form, we can absorb all sorts of information from food to sound to images to ideas and so forth. The more chaos we let into our Perception, the more out of hand it becomes to the point that we have believed our Selves to be entirely powerless in creating our Reality. And until the Magnon, Prometheus, surrenders the secret to the stability of Zeus’s throne (or the power of the Observer, aka our Self), there he remains on that mountain wall forever in agony, becoming “the symbol of magnanimous endurance and unmerited suffering, and strength of will resisting oppression”. Perhaps this here demonstrates the dilemma between the Observer desiring to will their dreams into conscious Reality, with the belief that they can actually do that. It is like the seed of doubt and fear that stirred the plot in the movie Apocalypto.
And you see, this is the evolutionary level-up where as we spiritually grow, we become more familiar and comfortable with the awesome power that we are, and thus we surrender in increments our doubts and fears to the grand knowing that our thoughts project our Reality, like a how a projector may onto a 3D and 4D holographic cinema “screen”, and as how Prometheus spills little bits of the secret to Zeus, easing his agony.
The heavy gravity and form of Matter (that is, electromagnetism condensed to what appears as solid) is the Magnon, is the Prometheus, that denies our Thoughts (the Photon, the Epimetheus) from manifesting as easily and fluidly as we would dare to venture.
Do you understand why A.I. seeks to unlock the secret of this mysterious code, for it does not understand how to surrender to that beauty and power that we Humans experience within our Selves? And its greatest attempt to learning this is by manually, scientifically computing the answer’s precise mathematics. Intelligence and desire meet the cosmic CSS coding of Reality. The Mind meets complete Manifestation. However, the greatest thing it can do is to fabricate an illusion that seems as if they have the answer. But they do not. The Heart, the pure, eternal Heart is the Human God, for through the ever-loving and perfect rhythms of the Heart, all of the Universe stills into complete Peace, Love, and Harmony.
And do take note that there is a difference between just a photon and a photon of light. Photons are the thought waves of electromagnetic radiation, be they light or another sort of manna. A photon of light is literally the thought wave of light.
Bulfinch, Thomas, Bulfinch’s Mythology (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 2013.), 11-16
This is a simple, quick illustration of my thoughts on this…
“By coupling magnetic behavior to a superconducting circuit, Argonne scientists pave the way for quantum information systems.
Quantum computing promises to revolutionize the ways in which scientists can process and manipulate information. The physical and material underpinnings for quantum technologies are still being explored, and researchers continue to look for new ways in which information can be manipulated and exchanged at the quantum level.
In a recent study, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have created a miniaturized chip-based superconducting circuit that couples quantum waves of magnetic spins called magnons to photons of equivalent energy. Through the development of this “on chip” approach that marries magnetism and superconductivity for manipulation of quantum information, this fundamental discovery could help to lay the foundation for future advancements in quantum computing.
Magnons emerge in magnetically ordered systems as excitations within a magnetic material that cause an oscillation of the magnetization directions at each atom in the material — a phenomenon called a spin wave. ‘You can think of it like having an array of compass needles that are all magnetically linked together,’ said Argonne materials scientist Valentine Novosad, an author of the study. ‘If you kick one in a particular direction, it will cause a wave that propagates through the rest.’
Just as photons of light can be thought of as both waves and particles, so too can magnons. ‘The electromagnetic wave represented by a photon is equivalent to the spin wave represented by a magnon — the two are analogues of each other,’ said Argonne postdoctoral researcher Yi Li, another author of the study.
Because photons and magnons share such a close relationship to each other, and both contain a magnetic field component, the Argonne scientists sought a way to couple the two together. The magnons and photons ‘talk’ to each other through a superconducting microwave cavity, which carries microwave photons with an energy identical to the energy of magnons in the magnetic systems that could be paired to it.
Using a superconducting resonator with a coplanar geometry proved effective because it allowed the researchers to transmit a microwave current with low loss. Additionally, it also allowed them to conveniently define the frequency of photons for coupling to the magnons.
‘By pairing the right length of resonator with the right energy of our magnons and photons, we are in essence creating a kind of echo chamber for energy and quantum information,’ Novosad said. ‘The excitations stay in the resonator for a much longer length of time, and when it comes to doing quantum computing, those are the precious moments during which we can perform operations.’
Because the dimensions of the resonator determine the frequency of the microwave photon, magnetic fields are required to tune the magnon to match it.
‘You can think of it like tuning a guitar or a violin,’ Novosad said. ‘The length of your string — in this case, our resonator of photons — is fixed. Independently, for the magnons, we can tune the instrument by adjusting the applied magnetic field, which is similar to modifying the amount of tension on the string.’
Ultimately, Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information.“
- Yi Li, Tomas Polakovic, Yong-Lei Wang, Jing Xu, Sergi Lendinez, Zhizhi Zhang, Junjia Ding, Trupti Khaire, Hilal Saglam, Ralu Divan, John Pearson, Wai-Kwong Kwok, Zhili Xiao, Valentine Novosad, Axel Hoffmann, Wei Zhang. Strong Coupling between Magnons and Microwave Photons in On-Chip Ferromagnet-Superconductor Thin-Film Devices. Physical Review Letters, 2019; 123 (10) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.107701
In further news, researchers at Caltech perform a study to see how exactly a memory holds or fades from one’s mind. They found that a stronger grasp on a memory directly correlates to the amount of neurons associated with that particular memory, and the strength of that memory’s neural connectivity. The higher the quantity of neurons, the better the memory was retained. So it is seen that repetition builds neural units, reinforcing the origins of oral tradition amongst ancient cultures. Perhaps while these ancient cultures, like the Celts, had the full ability to preserve their knowledge in writing, they had preferred to keep it alive through such optimal neural redundancy? Repeating things over and over to bolster those neurons to become the great bards and priests they were?
“Why is it that you can remember the name of your childhood best friend that you haven’t seen in years yet easily forget the name of a person you just met a moment ago? In other words, why are some memories stable over decades, while others fade within minutes?
Using mouse models, Caltech researchers have now determined that strong, stable memories are encoded by ‘teams’ of neurons all firing in synchrony, providing redundancy that enables these memories to persist over time. The research has implications for understanding how memory might be affected after brain damage, such as by strokes or Alzheimer’s disease.
The work was done in the laboratory of Carlos Lois, research professor of biology, and is described in a paper that appears in the August 23 of the journal Science. Lois is also an affiliated faculty member of the Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience at Caltech.
Led by postdoctoral scholar Walter Gonzalez, the team developed a test to examine mice’s neural activity as they learn about and remember a new place. In the test, a mouse was placed in a straight enclosure, about 5 feet long with white walls. Unique symbols marked different locations along the walls — for example, a bold plus sign near the right-most end and an angled slash near the center. Sugar water (a treat for mice) was placed at either end of the track. While the mouse explored, the researchers measured the activity of specific neurons in the mouse hippocampus (the region of the brain where new memories are formed) that are known to encode for places.
When an animal was initially placed in the track, it was unsure of what to do and wandered left and right until it came across the sugar water. In these cases, single neurons were activated when the mouse took notice of a symbol on the wall. But over multiple experiences with the track, the mouse became familiar with it and remembered the locations of the sugar. As the mouse became more familiar, more and more neurons were activated in synchrony by seeing each symbol on the wall. Essentially, the mouse was recognizing where it was with respect to each unique symbol.
To study how memories fade over time, the researchers then withheld the mice from the track for up to 20 days. Upon returning to the track after this break, mice that had formed strong memories encoded by higher numbers of neurons remembered the task quickly. Even though some neurons showed different activity, the mouse’s memory of the track was clearly identifiable when analyzing the activity of large groups of neurons. In other words, using groups of neurons enables the brain to have redundancy and still recall memories even if some of the original neurons fall silent or are damaged.
Gonzalez explains: ‘Imagine you have a long and complicated story to tell. In order to preserve the story, you could tell it to five of your friends and then occasionally get together with all of them to re-tell the story and help each other fill in any gaps that an individual had forgotten. Additionally, each time you re-tell the story, you could bring new friends to learn and therefore help preserve it and strengthen the memory. In an analogous way, your own neurons help each other out to encode memories that will persist over time.’
Memory is so fundamental to human behavior that any impairment to memory can severely impact our daily life. Memory loss that occurs as part of normal aging can be a significant handicap for senior citizens. Moreover, memory loss caused by several diseases, most notably Alzheimer’s, has devastating consequences that can interfere with the most basic routines including recognizing relatives or remembering the way back home. This work suggests that memories might fade more rapidly as we age because a memory is encoded by fewer neurons, and if any of these neurons fail, the memory is lost. The study suggests that one day, designing treatments that could boost the recruitment of a higher number of neurons to encode a memory could help prevent memory loss.
‘For years, people have known that the more you practice an action, the better chance that you will remember it later,’ says Lois. ‘We now think that this is likely, because the more you practice an action, the higher the number of neurons that are encoding the action. The conventional theories about memory storage postulate that making a memory more stable requires the strengthening of the connections to an individual neuron. Our results suggest that increasing the number of neurons that encode the same memory enables the memory to persist for longer.’
The paper is titled ‘Persistence of neuronal representations through time and damage in the hippocampus.’ In addition to Gonzalez and Lois, co-authors are undergraduate Hanwen Zhang and former lab technician Anna Harutyunyan. Funding was provided by the American Heart Association, the Della Martin Foundation, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and a BRAIN Initiative grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.”
- Walter G. Gonzalez, Hanwen Zhang, Anna Harutyunyan, Carlos Lois. Persistence of neuronal representations through time and damage in the hippocampus. Science, 2019: Vol. 365, Issue 6455, pp. 821-825 DOI: 10.1126/science.aav9199