Category: Hmmm?

Defying Energetic Vacuums

I wonder if this sort of design would enable energy to be passed to and fro’ inside of vacuums as well…for after all, it has been said to activate anti-gravitational motions.

 

 

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Heat energy leaps through empty space, thanks to quantum weirdness

by Kara Manke, University of California – Berkeley

 

In a new study, University of California, Berkeley, researchers show that heat energy can travel through a complete vacuum thanks to invisible quantum fluctuations. In the experiment, the team placed two gold-coated silicon nitride membranes a few hundred nanometers apart inside a vacuum chamber. When they heated up one of the membranes, the other warmed up, too, even though there was nothing connecting the two membranes and negligible light energy passing between them. Credit: Zhang Lab, UC Berkeley

If you use a vacuum-insulated thermos to help keep your coffee hot, you may know it’s a good insulator because heat energy has a hard time moving through empty space. Vibrations of atoms or molecules, which carry thermal energy, simply can’t travel if there are no atoms or molecules around.

But a new study by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, shows how the weirdness of quantum mechanics can turn even this basic tenet of classical physics on its head.

 

The study, appearing this week in the journal Nature, shows that heat energy can leap across a few hundred nanometers of a complete vacuum, thanks to a quantum mechanical phenomenon called the Casimir interaction.

 

Though this interaction is only significant on very short length scales, it could have profound implications for the design of computer chips and other nanoscale electronic components where heat dissipation is key. It also upends what many of us learned about heat transfer in high school physics.

 

“Heat is usually conducted in a solid through the vibrations of atoms or molecules, or so-called phonons—but in a vacuum, there is no physical medium. So, for many years, textbooks told us that phonons cannot travel through a vacuum,” said Xiang Zhang, the professor of mechanical engineering at UC Berkeley who guided the study. “What we discovered, surprisingly, is that phonons can indeed be transferred across a vacuum by invisible quantum fluctuations.”

 

In a new study, University of California, Berkeley, researchers show that heat energy can travel through a complete vacuum thanks to invisible quantum fluctuations. To conduct the challenging experiment, the team engineered extremely thin silicon nitride membranes, which they fabricated in a dust-free clean room, and then used optic and electronic components to precisely control and monitor the temperature of the membranes when they were locked inside a vacuum chamber. Credit: Violet Carter, UC Berkeley

 

In the experiment, Zhang’s team placed two gold-coated silicon nitride membranes a few hundred nanometers apart inside a vacuum chamber. When they heated up one of the membranes, the other warmed up, too—even though there was nothing connecting the two membranes and negligible light energy passing between them.

 

“This discovery of a new mechanism of heat transfer opens up unprecedented opportunities for thermal management at the nanoscale, which is important for high-speed computation and data storage,” said Hao-Kun Li, a former Ph.D. student in Zhang’s group and co-first author of the study. “Now, we can engineer the quantum vacuum to extract heat in integrated circuits.”

 

No such thing as empty space

The seemingly impossible feat of moving molecular vibrations across a vacuum can be accomplished because, according to quantum mechanics, there is no such thing as truly empty space, said King Yan Fong, a postdoctoral scholar at UC Berkeley and the study’s other first author.

 

“Even if you have empty space—no matter, no light—quantum mechanics says it cannot be truly empty. There are still some quantum field fluctuations in a vacuum,” Fong said. “These fluctuations give rise to a force that connects two objects, which is called the Casimir interaction. So, when one object heats up and starts shaking and oscillating, that motion can actually be transmitted to the other object across the vacuum because of these quantum fluctuations.”

 

In a surprising new study, University of California, Berkeley, researchers show that heat energy can travel through a complete vacuum thanks to invisible quantum fluctuations. Credit: Violet Carter, UC Berkeley

Though theorists have long speculated that the Casimir interaction could help molecular vibrations travel through empty space, proving it experimentally has been a major challenge. To do so, the team engineered extremely thin silicon nitride membranes, which they fabricated in a dust-free clean room, and then devised a way to precisely control and monitor their temperature.

 

They found that, by carefully selecting the size and design of the membranes, they could transfer the heat energy over a few hundred nanometers of vacuum. This distance was far enough that other possible modes of heat transfer were negligible—such as energy carried by electromagnetic radiation, which is how energy from the sun heats up Earth.

 

Because molecular vibrations are also the basis of the sounds that we hear, this discovery hints that sounds can also travel through a vacuum, Zhang said.

 

“Twenty-five years ago, during my Ph.D. qualifying exam at Berkeley, one professor asked me ‘Why can you hear my voice across this table?’ I answered that, ‘It is because your sound travels by vibrating molecules in the air.’ He further asked, ‘What if we suck all air molecules out of this room? Can you still hear me?’ I said, ‘No, because there is no medium to vibrate,'” Zhang said. “Today, what we discovered is a surprising new mode of heat conduction across a vacuum without a medium, which is achieved by the intriguing quantum vacuum fluctuations. So, I was wrong in my 1994 exam. Now, you can shout through a vacuum.”

 

More information: Phonon heat transfer across a vacuum through quantum fluctuations, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1800-4 , https://nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1800-4
Journal information: Nature

Provided by University of California – Berkeley

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Accessing Timeless, Quantum Godhood

Due to gravity slowing down time, it is believed that if an object were to not be submitted to any sort of gravitational pull, it would then not be bound to time.

On this idea, scientists at the University of Queensland are testing out a new quantum time theory where if an object were entirely left alone without any presence of gravity, even the observer’s gaze, it would transcend into a state of “superposition”, which is the sum of possible configurations, or arrangements, of the object.

The object’s presence could only be known then through all possible rest states, thereby creating a unique quantum state for it to exist…accessing the pure God essence of the said object. They say this could potentially accelerate computer mechanics as the computers would not be operating in a linear sequence, but rather off the time spectrum and in its very own perfectly present state of being.

As UQ researcher, Dr. Fabio Costa, says, “We are currently working towards quantum computers that — very simply speaking — could effectively jump through time to perform their operations much more efficiently than devices operating in fixed sequence in time, as we know it in our ‘normal’ world.”

Imagine this potentially being combined with A.I. technology!

 

And you may want to look into what is called Schrödinger’s cat. https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/schrodinger’s_cat.htm


“A University of Queensland-led international team of researchers say they have discovered ‘a new kind of quantum time order.’

UQ physicist Dr Magdalena Zych said the discovery arose from an experiment the team designed to bring together elements of the two big — but contradictory — physics theories developed in the past century.

‘Our proposal sought to discover: what happens when an object massive enough to influence the flow of time is placed in a quantum state?’ Dr Zych said.

She said Einstein’s theory described how the presence of a massive object slowed time.

‘Imagine two space ships, asked to fire at each other at a specified time while dodging the other’s attack,’ she said.

‘If either fires too early, it will destroy the other.’

‘In Einstein’s theory, a powerful enemy could use the principles of general relativity by placing a massive object — like a planet — closer to one ship to slow the passing of time.’

‘Because of the time lag, the ship furthest away from the massive object will fire earlier, destroying the other.’

Dr Zych said the second theory, of quantum mechanics, says any object can be in a state of ‘superposition’

‘This means it can be found in different states — think Schrodinger’s cat,’ she said.

Dr Zych said using the theory of quantum mechanics, if the enemy put the planet into a state of ‘quantum superposition,’ then time also should be disrupted.

‘There would be a new way for the order of events to unfold, with neither of the events being first or second — but in a genuine quantum state of being both first and second,’ she said.

UQ researcher Dr Fabio Costa said although ‘a superposition of planets’ as described in the paper — may never be possible, technology allowed a simulation of how time works in the quantum world — without using gravity.

‘Even if the experiment can never be done, the study is relevant for future technologies,’ Dr Costa said.

‘We are currently working towards quantum computers that — very simply speaking — could effectively jump through time to perform their operations much more efficiently than devices operating in fixed sequence in time, as we know it in our ‘normal’ world.’

Stevens Institute of Technology and the University of Vienna scientists were co-authors on Bell’s Theorem for Temporal Order, published in Nature Communications.”

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of QueenslandNote: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Magdalena Zych, Fabio Costa, Igor Pikovski, Časlav Brukner. Bell’s theorem for temporal orderNature Communications, 2019; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11579-x

 

You may find this article here at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190826122010.htm