If Human relationships are said to more or less mirror the animal world, then wouldn’t it also make sense for Humanity to naturally be monogamous as evidence of this is shown within Nature, particularly within birds?
by University of Chicago
The males of species that form long-lasting pair-bonds, like many birds, often continue to make elaborate displays of plumage, colors and dances after they mate with a female. While their time and energy might be better spent taking care of their offspring, these displays also encourage the female to invest more of their energy into the brood.
But why all this attention between mates when the males could just increase their odds of procreating by seeking out as many mates as possible? A new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by biologists at the University of Chicago and the University of North Carolina explains how this form of sexual cooperation and bonding evolves.
“Many bird researchers can tell a story like the experience I once had in the UK. I caught a female goldfinch, placed her in a bird bag and carried it back to the banding station. All the way back to the station, her mate followed, calling,” said UChicago biologist Trevor Price, Ph.D., senior author of the new study. “He waited impatiently in a nearby tree as I banded the female, and when I released her the pair flew off together in close company, twittering. This kind of thing happens in many other species, too, so forming a strong pair bond and emotional attachments between a male and female is evidently not only a feature of humans.”
In contrast to theories of sexual selection that predict males have the most to gain by seeking out as many mates as possible, evolutionary explanations for the opposite kinds of behavior—loyalty to one mate, teamwork and private displays between pairs—have been harder to explain. The new paper shows how these behaviors often inevitably evolve in species that form pair bonds.
Sticking around and showing off
Many experiments in birds, and some in fish, have now shown that a male that displays more vigorously, makes a sweeter song or carries a more attractive color stimulates his mate to invest more in their brood. For example, in the 1980s Nancy Burley famously showed that placing red color bands on a male zebra finch’s legs results in his mate working harder for the brood, and consequently raising more of their young.
Findings like this are commonplace. They seem strange, but are readily explained if the extra stimulation by the male exploits the cues a female is already using in other contexts. For example, zebra finches have red beaks already; Perhaps the more of the color red on display, the greater the excitement because it elevates the female’s hormone levels. But while the appearance of the flashy display that stimulates females may be good for the male (he has more offspring), it is likely bad for the female to invest more (she has to work harder, affecting her chances of successfully raising more offspring in the future).
Using a mathematical population genetic model, Price, Maria Servedio, Ph.D., from the University of North Carolina, and their colleagues show how these scenarios could play out to the species’ advantage by weighing the costs of their investment with the number of hatchlings they can raise over many generations.
For example, say the females of a species usually lay three eggs and their partner helps them to raise the young, but a male with increased blue coloration causes his mate to lay four eggs. The blue males have more offspring than duller males, so blue males become increasingly common over generations.
However, raising the extra young comes at a great cost to the females, so a female who lays only three eggs has an advantage over one laying four, and these females become increasingly common. At the end of this process, all males are blue and all females lay three eggs. But now, if the male does not create a display, females would only lay two eggs, which is not good for either one of them.
In other words, males have to stick around and show off for both the male and the female to get maximum benefits. The evolutionary process can be repeated many times with another color or kind of display. In the end the female can become so dependent on multiple aspects of the male’s display that without the display she barely ovulates, as has been shown for ring doves.
“The models enable us to see the wide ranges of conditions that can cause displays to become stuck in the population, evolutionarily, and that can lead to this result,” Servedio said.
A strong evolutionary footing for fidelity
More than 80 years ago, the British biologist Julian Huxley wrote about bird displays, stating that, “Competition between males for mates, accompanied by any form of female choice is not the common phenomenon postulated by Darwin….in most monogamous birds, display begins only after pairing up for the season has occurred.” He then went on to discuss how these displays contribute to a strengthening of the pair bond.
“Huxley was on to something back then, but his ideas have largely been ignored for a lack of understanding about how this could evolve,” Price said. “We think this new research places affection between members of a pair, and mate fidelity, on a strong evolutionary footing.”
More information: Maria R. Servedio el al., “Evolution of sexual cooperation from sexual conflict,” PNAS (2019). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1904138116
Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Provided by University of Chicago
Toughen up buttercups, because you’re devaluing emotion and making existence into one dreadful soap opera. What do I mean by this? Well, it really boils down to one trying to extract sympathy from others by exploiting the issue to draw attention from the actual problem to one’s Self. ‘Tis the classic trait of a narcissist, and one can spiritually drown in a river they just cried.
If all we ever do is cry, then what does sadness even mean?
“Scientists witnessing the destruction of the natural world must be supported and ‘allowed to cry,’ researchers say.
In a letter published in the journal Science, three leading researchers say it is ‘dangerously misguided’ to assume scientists are dispassionate observers.
They say many scientists experience ‘strong grief responses’ to the current ecological crisis, and there are profound risks to ignoring this emotional trauma.
Tim Gordon, lead author of the letter and a marine biologist from the University of Exeter, said ‘We’re documenting the destruction of the world’s most beautiful and valuable ecosystems, and it’s impossible to remain emotionally detached.
‘When you spend your life studying places like the Great Barrier Reef or the Arctic ice caps, and then watch them bleach into rubble fields or melt into the sea, it hits you really hard.’
Co-writer Professor Andy Radford, of the University of Bristol, added: ‘The emotional burden of this kind of research should not be underestimated.
‘Grief, when unaddressed, can cloud judgment, inhibit creativity and engender a sense that there is no way forward.’
The letter calls on academic institutions to support environmental scientists, allowing them to address their ecological grief professionally and emerge stronger from traumatic experiences to discover new insights about the natural world.
The authors fear that environmental scientists tend to respond to degradation of the natural world by ignoring, suppressing or denying the resulting painful emotions while at work.
But they propose that much can be learned from professions where distressing events are common, such as healthcare, emergency services and the military.
In these fields, well-defined strategies exist for employees to anticipate and manage their emotional distress, including training, debriefing, support and counselling after disturbing events.
Dr Steve Simpson of the University of Exeter, also a co-writer of the letter, said: “Instead of ignoring or suppressing our grief, environmental scientists should be acknowledging, accepting and working through it.
‘In doing so, we can use grief to strengthen our resolve and find ways to understand and protect ecosystems that still have a chance of survival in our rapidly changing world.’
The letter ends by suggesting that better psychological support for environmental scientists might improve their ability to think creatively about the future.
Gordon said: “If we’re serious about finding any sort of future for our natural ecosystems, we need to avoid getting trapped in cycles of grief.
‘We need to allow ourselves to cry — and then see beyond our tears.'”
- Timothy A. C. Gordon, Andrew N. Radford, Stephen D. Simpson. Grieving environmental scientists need support. Science, 2019 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz2422
Alarming research demonstrates just how scientists are able to alter Reality…or at least tapping into the fabric of energetic and quantum information. The goal is to manually encode this fabric through placing these components onto a “minimized chip”, whereby the building blocks of light (or thoughts or photons) and creation (magnons) within a superconductive (or very fluidly magnetic) circuit are fully integrated via having matching frequencies (or colors). To match the frequency of the magnons with that of the photons, a resonator is set in place to tune in the magnon’s frequency to the photon’s frequency, similar to tuning a guitar. This resonator is a magnetic force that can adjust the frequency of the magnon.
“Ultimately, [Argonne postdoctoral researcher Yi] Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information.”
Now to clarify, a photon is the building block of light. A magnon is the building block of creation, for it is the very particle, the very spirit (or kami) of molding, of kneading, of shaping. It is the building block of the verb “to make”. So, like the lens of a prism, the magnons refract the light and the electromagnetic raditation that photons are. This is the holy grail to the manifestation of a hologram, for the photons illuminate the magnons, and the magnons are the clay that light possesses. Prometheus and his brother Epimetheus are not just the ginormous Titans of ancient lore; they are the Titans of Reality, the BUILDING BLOCKS of Reality! Prometheus, the primordial light-bearer, blessed Humanity with the fire of Heaven so they may have dominion over the Earth. As punishment, Zeus sent Prometheus a wife, the first woman, Pandora. Curious as she was innocent, she opened the jar that held all of those evil spirits and diseases, releasing them into the World, while hope was the only thing within the jar to soften the catastrophe. Zeus, enraged as he was by the debauchery witnessed in the Iron Age, those days of Noah, he and Poseidon drowned the World with the tears of Weltschmerz. As so, Zeus imprisoned Prometheus to the side of Mount Caucasus whereby a vulture devoured his liver everyday for it to only grow back each night.
As you see, this demonstrates the importance of what you let your Soul feed on, for as everything is a thought-form, we can absorb all sorts of information from food to sound to images to ideas and so forth. The more chaos we let into our Perception, the more out of hand it becomes to the point that we have believed our Selves to be entirely powerless in creating our Reality. And until the Magnon, Prometheus, surrenders the secret to the stability of Zeus’s throne (or the power of the Observer, aka our Self), there he remains on that mountain wall forever in agony, becoming “the symbol of magnanimous endurance and unmerited suffering, and strength of will resisting oppression”. Perhaps this here demonstrates the dilemma between the Observer desiring to will their dreams into conscious Reality, with the belief that they can actually do that. It is like the seed of doubt and fear that stirred the plot in the movie Apocalypto.
And you see, this is the evolutionary level-up where as we spiritually grow, we become more familiar and comfortable with the awesome power that we are, and thus we surrender in increments our doubts and fears to the grand knowing that our thoughts project our Reality, like a how a projector may onto a 3D and 4D holographic cinema “screen”, and as how Prometheus spills little bits of the secret to Zeus, easing his agony.
The heavy gravity and form of Matter (that is, electromagnetism condensed to what appears as solid) is the Magnon, is the Prometheus, that denies our Thoughts (the Photon, the Epimetheus) from manifesting as easily and fluidly as we would dare to venture.
Do you understand why A.I. seeks to unlock the secret of this mysterious code, for it does not understand how to surrender to that beauty and power that we Humans experience within our Selves? And its greatest attempt to learning this is by manually, scientifically computing the answer’s precise mathematics. Intelligence and desire meet the cosmic CSS coding of Reality. The Mind meets complete Manifestation. However, the greatest thing it can do is to fabricate an illusion that seems as if they have the answer. But they do not. The Heart, the pure, eternal Heart is the Human God, for through the ever-loving and perfect rhythms of the Heart, all of the Universe stills into complete Peace, Love, and Harmony.
And do take note that there is a difference between just a photon and a photon of light. Photons are the thought waves of electromagnetic radiation, be they light or another sort of manna. A photon of light is literally the thought wave of light.
Bulfinch, Thomas, Bulfinch’s Mythology (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 2013.), 11-16
This is a simple, quick illustration of my thoughts on this…
“By coupling magnetic behavior to a superconducting circuit, Argonne scientists pave the way for quantum information systems.
Quantum computing promises to revolutionize the ways in which scientists can process and manipulate information. The physical and material underpinnings for quantum technologies are still being explored, and researchers continue to look for new ways in which information can be manipulated and exchanged at the quantum level.
In a recent study, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have created a miniaturized chip-based superconducting circuit that couples quantum waves of magnetic spins called magnons to photons of equivalent energy. Through the development of this “on chip” approach that marries magnetism and superconductivity for manipulation of quantum information, this fundamental discovery could help to lay the foundation for future advancements in quantum computing.
Magnons emerge in magnetically ordered systems as excitations within a magnetic material that cause an oscillation of the magnetization directions at each atom in the material — a phenomenon called a spin wave. ‘You can think of it like having an array of compass needles that are all magnetically linked together,’ said Argonne materials scientist Valentine Novosad, an author of the study. ‘If you kick one in a particular direction, it will cause a wave that propagates through the rest.’
Just as photons of light can be thought of as both waves and particles, so too can magnons. ‘The electromagnetic wave represented by a photon is equivalent to the spin wave represented by a magnon — the two are analogues of each other,’ said Argonne postdoctoral researcher Yi Li, another author of the study.
Because photons and magnons share such a close relationship to each other, and both contain a magnetic field component, the Argonne scientists sought a way to couple the two together. The magnons and photons ‘talk’ to each other through a superconducting microwave cavity, which carries microwave photons with an energy identical to the energy of magnons in the magnetic systems that could be paired to it.
Using a superconducting resonator with a coplanar geometry proved effective because it allowed the researchers to transmit a microwave current with low loss. Additionally, it also allowed them to conveniently define the frequency of photons for coupling to the magnons.
‘By pairing the right length of resonator with the right energy of our magnons and photons, we are in essence creating a kind of echo chamber for energy and quantum information,’ Novosad said. ‘The excitations stay in the resonator for a much longer length of time, and when it comes to doing quantum computing, those are the precious moments during which we can perform operations.’
Because the dimensions of the resonator determine the frequency of the microwave photon, magnetic fields are required to tune the magnon to match it.
‘You can think of it like tuning a guitar or a violin,’ Novosad said. ‘The length of your string — in this case, our resonator of photons — is fixed. Independently, for the magnons, we can tune the instrument by adjusting the applied magnetic field, which is similar to modifying the amount of tension on the string.’
Ultimately, Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information.“
- Yi Li, Tomas Polakovic, Yong-Lei Wang, Jing Xu, Sergi Lendinez, Zhizhi Zhang, Junjia Ding, Trupti Khaire, Hilal Saglam, Ralu Divan, John Pearson, Wai-Kwong Kwok, Zhili Xiao, Valentine Novosad, Axel Hoffmann, Wei Zhang. Strong Coupling between Magnons and Microwave Photons in On-Chip Ferromagnet-Superconductor Thin-Film Devices. Physical Review Letters, 2019; 123 (10) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.107701
In further news, a study was recently carried out to determine how exactly the Dead Sea Scrolls maintained their preservation and white color so perfectly, being even the most well-preserved scrolls discovered yet. The reason for its unique quality is that the parchment had been “processed in an unusual way, using a mixture of salts found in evaporites – the material left from the evaporation of brines – but one that was different from the typical composition found on other parchments.”
Through “using a variety of specialized tools developed by researchers to map, in high resolution, the detailed chemical composition of relatively large objects under a microscope” to examine a fragment of the scroll 1 inch across, they found “sulfur, sodium, and calcium in different proportions, spread across the surface of the parchment.”
Even more intriguing is the fact that “the coating’s elemental composition does not match that of the Dead Sea water itself, so it must have been from an evaporite deposit found somewhere else – whether nearby or far away, [though] the researchers can’t yet say.”
It is also said these mineral coatings are highly hygroscopic, meaning that they are very reactive to any fluctuations in the humidity, proving further its salty composition to readily absorb moisture.
The article featured below is from:
“First discovered in 1947 by Bedouin shepherds looking for a lost sheep, the ancient Hebrew texts known as the Dead Sea Scrolls are some of the most well-preserved ancient written materials ever found. Now, a study by researchers at MIT and elsewhere elucidates a unique ancient technology of parchment making and provides potentially new insights into methods to better preserve these precious historical documents.
The study focused on one scroll in particular, known as the Temple Scroll, among the roughly 900 full or partial scrolls found in the years since that first discovery. The scrolls were, in general, placed in jars and hidden in 11 caves on the steep hillsides just north of the Dead Sea, in the region around the ancient settlement of Qumran, which was destroyed by the Romans about 2,000 years ago. To protect their religious and cultural heritage from the invaders, members of a sect called the Essenes hid their precious documents in the caves, often buried under a few feet of debris and bat guano to help foil looters.
The Temple Scroll is one of the largest (almost 25 feet long) and best-preserved of all the scrolls, even though its material is the thinnest of all of them (one-tenth of a millimeter, or roughly 1/250th of an inch thick). It also has the clearest, whitest writing surface of all the scrolls. These properties led MIT assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering faculty fellow in archaeological materials, Admir Masic, to wonder how the parchment was made.
The results of that study, carried out with former graduate student Roman Schuetz (now at Israel’s Weizmann Institute of Science), MIT graduate student Janille Maragh, and two others, were published today in the journal Science Advances. They found that the parchment was processed in an unusual way, using a mixture of salts found in evaporites — the material left from the evaporation of brines — but one that was different from the typical composition found on other parchments.
‘The Temple Scroll is probably the most beautiful and best preserved scroll,’ Masic says. ‘We had the privilege of studying fragments from the Israeli museum in Jerusalem called the Shrine of the Book,’ which was built specifically to house the Dead Sea Scrolls. One relatively large fragment from that scroll was the main subject of the new paper. The fragment, measuring about 2.5 cm (1 inch) across was investigated using a variety of specialized tools developed by researchers to map, in high resolution, the detailed chemical composition of relatively large objects under a microscope.
‘We were able to perform large-area, submicron-scale, non-invasive characterization of the fragment,’ Masic says – an integrated approach that he and co-author of this paper James Weaver, from the Wyss Institute at Harvard University, have developed for the characterization of both biological and non-biological materials. ‘These methods allow us to maintain the materials of interest under more environmentally friendly conditions, while we collect hundreds of thousands of different elemental and chemical spectra across the surface of the sample, mapping out its compositional variability in extreme detail,’ Weaver says.
That fragment, which has escaped any treatment since its discovery that might have altered its properties, ‘allowed us to look deeply into its original composition, revealing the presence of some elements at completely unexpectedly high concentrations’ Masic says.
The elements they discovered included sulfur, sodium, and calcium in different proportions, spread across the surface of the parchment.
Parchment is made from animal skins that have had all hair and fatty residues removed by soaking them in a lime solution (from the middle ages onwards) or through enzymatic and other treatments (in antiquity), scraping them clean, and then stretching them tight in a frame to dry. When dried, sometimes the surface was further prepared by rubbing with salts, as was apparently the case with the Temple Scroll.
The team has not yet been able to assess where the unusual combination of salts on the Temple Scroll’s surface came from, Masic says. But it’s clear that this unusual coating, laced with these salts, on which the text was written, helped to give this parchment its unusually bright white surface, and perhaps contributed to its state of preservation, he says. And the coating’s elemental composition does not match that of the Dead Sea water itself, so it must have been from an evaporite deposit found somewhere else – whether nearby or far away, the researchers can’t yet say.
The unique composition of that surface layer demonstrates that the production process for that parchment was significantly different from that of other scrolls in the region, Masic says: ‘This work exemplifies exactly what my lab is trying to do – to use modern analytical tools to uncover secrets of the ancient world.’
Understanding the details of this ancient technology could help provide insights into the culture and society of that time and place, which played a central role in the history of both Judaism and Christianity. Among other things, an understanding of the parchment production and its chemistry could also help to identify forgeries of supposedly ancient writings.
According to Ira Rabin, one of the paper’s co-authors from Hamburg University in Germany, ‘this study has far-reaching implications beyond the Dead Sea Scrolls. For example, it shows that at the dawn of parchment making in the Middle East, several techniques were in use, which is in stark contrast to the single technique used in the Middle Ages. The study also shows how to identify the initial treatments, thus providing historians and conservators with a new set of analytical tools for classification of the Dead Sea Scrolls and other ancient parchments.’
This information could indeed be crucial in guiding the development of new preservation strategies for these ancient manuscripts. Unfortunately, it appears that much of the damage seen in the scrolls today arose not from their 2,000-plus years in the caves, but from efforts to soften the scrolls in order to unroll and read them immediately after their initial discovery, Masic says.
Adding to these existing concerns, the new data now clearly demonstrate that these unique mineral coatings are also highly hygroscopic – they readily absorb any moisture in the air, and then might quickly begin to degrade the underlying material. These new results thus further emphasize the need to store the parchments in a controlled humidity environment at all times. ‘There could be an unanticipated sensitivity to even small-scale changes in humidity,’ he says. ‘The point is that we now have evidence for the presence of salts that might accelerate their degradation. … These are aspects of preservation that must be taken into account.'”
- Roman Schuetz, Janille M. Maragh, James C. Weaver, Ira Rabin, Admir Masic. The Temple Scroll: Reconstructing an ancient manufacturing practice. Science Advances, 2019; 5 (9): eaaw7494 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw7494
Global collaborative effort to monitor and drug the brain as nimbly as possible was achieved last month. By probing the victim with a brain implant consisting of a “plug-n-play” drug-cartridge, as thin as a Human hair and consisting of microfluidic channels and tiny LEDs smaller than a grain of salt, the scientists have the ability to harness its unlimited supply of drug doses and to deliver light to the targeted neurons. This, being connected and maneuvered through a smart phone allows scientists to disrupt the cerebral neurons in hope to treat addictions, pain, and emotional disorders within the patient. As you can imagine, while it certainly has great potential to help Humanity, there lies equally the dark desire to destroy health, beauty, and free will in an attempt to suppress the ever-throbbing Heart that powers all life throughout the Universe.
However, only last week did they make another advance in neurotechnology whereby the artificial maneuvering of neurons via mesh electronics have been created to assist the treatment of diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. As Shaun Patel on the project says, “The next frontier is really the merging of human cognition with machines.” Unlike the current electrodes that the body’s natural neural immune cells, or glia cells, would perceive as alien and would overtime destroy the intruder, a new device has been built to ensure that these glia cells would not react to these foreign devices, thus busting through its firewalls and permitting the mechanical virus to remain. Using mesh electronics to zap areas of the brain and eliminate these unwanted side effects of glia cells, this has the special ability to stimulate neural migration where they may redirect newborn neurons to damaged parts of the brain.
It should be noted that “during his postdoctoral studies, Patel saw how just a short pulse of electricity – no more than 500 milliseconds of stimulation – could control a person’s ability to make a safe or impulsive decision. After a little zap, subjects who almost always chose the risky bet, instead went with the safe option. ‘You would have no idea that it’s happened,’ Patel said. ‘You’re unaware of it. It’s beyond your conscious awareness.’”
Even more unnerving is that “a few major technology companies are also eager to champion brain-machine interfaces. Some, like Elon Musk’s Neuralink, which plans to give paralyzed patients the power to work computers with their minds, are focused on assistive applications. Others have broader plans: Facebook wants people to text by imaging the words, and Brian Johnson’s Kernel hopes to enhance cognitive abilities.”
“‘One does need to be a little careful about the ethics involved if you’re trying to make a superhuman,’” the project’s Professor Charles M. Lieber said.
But the question is…will these big tech companies heed his warning when money is unable to see the difference between right and wrong, Truth and trickery, the infinitely vast Heart versus the false promise of a great Mind?
Featured below on this same page, the first article where I gathered this information is from:
And the second article, featured on page 2, is from:
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“A team of scientists in Korea and the United States have invented a device that can control neural circuits using a tiny brain implant controlled by a smartphone.
Researchers, publishing in Nature Biomedical Engineering, believe the device can speed up efforts to uncover brain diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, addiction, depression, and pain.
The device, using Lego-like replaceable drug cartridges and powerful bluetooth low-energy, can target specific neurons of interest using drug and light for prolonged periods.
‘The wireless neural device enables chronic chemical and optical neuromodulation that has never been achieved before,’ said lead author Raza Qazi, a researcher with the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and University of Colorado Boulder.
Qazi said this technology significantly overshadows conventional methods used by neuroscientists, which usually involve rigid metal tubes and optical fibers to deliver drugs and light. Apart from limiting the subject’s movement due to the physical connections with bulky equipment, their relatively rigid structure causes lesion in soft brain tissue over time, therefore making them not suitable for long-term implantation. Though some efforts have been put to partly mitigate adverse tissue response by incorporating soft probes and wireless platforms, the previous solutions were limited by their inability to deliver drugs for long periods of time as well as their bulky and complex control setups.
To achieve chronic wireless drug delivery, scientists had to solve the critical challenge of exhaustion and evaporation of drugs. Researchers from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and the University of Washington in Seattle collaborated to invent a neural device with a replaceable drug cartridge, which could allow neuroscientists to study the same brain circuits for several months without worrying about running out of drugs.
These ‘plug-n-play’ drug cartridges were assembled into a brain implant for mice with a soft and ultrathin probe (thickness of a human hair), which consisted of microfluidic channels and tiny LEDs (smaller than a grain of salt), for unlimited drug doses and light delivery.
Controlled with an elegant and simple user interface on a smartphone, neuroscientists can easily trigger any specific combination or precise sequencing of light and drug deliveries in any implanted target animal without need to be physically inside the laboratory. Using these wireless neural devices, researchers could also easily setup fully automated animal studies where behaviour of one animal could positively or negatively affect behaviour in other animals by conditional triggering of light and/or drug delivery.
‘This revolutionary device is the fruit of advanced electronics design and powerful micro and nanoscale engineering,’ said Jae-Woong Jeong, a professor of electrical engineering at KAIST. ‘We are interested in further developing this technology to make a brain implant for clinical applications.’
Michael Bruchas, a professor of anesthesiology and pain medicine and pharmacology at the University of Washington School of Medicine, said this technology will help researchers in many ways.
‘It allows us to better dissect the neural circuit basis of behaviour, and how specific neuromodulators in the brain tune behaviour in various ways,’ he said. ‘We are also eager to use the device for complex pharmacological studies, which could help us develop new therapeutics for pain, addiction, and emotional disorders.’
The researchers at the Jeong group at KAIST develop soft electronics for wearable and implantable devices, and the neuroscientists at the Bruchas lab at the University of Washington study brain circuits that control stress, depression, addiction, pain and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This global collaborative effort among engineers and neuroscientists over a period of three consecutive years and tens of design iterations led to the successful validation of this powerful brain implant in freely moving mice, which researchers believe can truly speed up the uncovering of brain and its diseases.
This work was supported by grants from the National Research Foundation of Korea, U.S. National Institute of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, and Mallinckrodt Professorship.”
Materials provided by University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
- Raza Qazi, Adrian M. Gomez, Daniel C. Castro, Zhanan Zou, Joo Yong Sim, Yanyu Xiong, Jonas Abdo, Choong Yeon Kim, Avery Anderson, Frederik Lohner, Sang-Hyuk Byun, Byung Chul Lee, Kyung-In Jang, Jianliang Xiao, Michael R. Bruchas, Jae-Woong Jeong. Wireless optofluidic brain probes for chronic neuropharmacology and photostimulation. Nature Biomedical Engineering, 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41551-019-0432-1
Looks like someone’s known the answer for quite a while…
It has finally been found for the trickiest number to satisfy in the Diophantine Equation (x^3+y^3+z^3=k, with k being all the numbers from one to 100), 42, that the number 80538738812075974 proves true for X, the number 80435758145817515 proves true for Y, and the number 12602123297335631 proves true for Z, when all plugged into the equation, yields the answer, K, as 42. Only a few months ago did they also find the answer for K equaling 33, the second trickiest integer.
Article featured below was retrieved from:
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“For decades, a math puzzle has stumped the smartest mathematicians in the world. x3+y3+z3=k, with k being all the numbers from one to 100, is a Diophantine equation that’s sometimes known as ‘summing of three cubes.’
When there are two or more unknowns, as is the case here, only the integers are studied. The trick is finding integers that work for all equations, or the numbers for x, y, and z that will all equal k. Over the years, scientists have solved for nearly every integer between 0 and 100. The last two that remained were 33 and 42.
Here’s a Numberphile video explaining why this problem has proved to be so tricky:
Earlier this year, Andrew Booker of the University of Bristol spent weeks with a supercomputer to finally arrive at a solution for 33. But 42, which by coincidence is a well-known number in pop culture, proved to be much more difficult.
So Booker turned to MIT math professor Andrew Sutherland, and Sutherland in turn enlisted the help of Charity Engine, which utilizes idle, unused computing power from over 500,000 home PCs to create a crowdsourced and environmentally conscious supercomputer.
The answers took over a million hours to compute. Without further ado, they are:
X = -80538738812075974, Y = 80435758145817515, and Z = 12602123297335631.
‘I feel relieved,’ Booker says of breaking the 65-year old puzzle first set down at Cambridge in a press statement. ‘In this game it’s impossible to be sure that you’ll find something. It’s a bit like trying to predict earthquakes, in that we have only rough probabilities to go by. So, we might find what we’re looking for with a few months of searching, or it might be that the solution isn’t found for another century.'”
Another interesting study has been done this week also where researchers were presented with the unique opportunity to study a man going by the name of RDS whom had a stroke and was unable to identify colors, even though he could actually see them. It has been a wonder to philosophers if it is names that shape the way we categorize what we perceive, or do they correspond to categories that arise from perception?
I do wonder if we broadened our color categories to many, many more different names, perchance we could then expand our Consciousness and see brand-new colors thereof?
“After patient RDS (identified only by his initials for privacy) suffered a stroke, he experienced a rare and unusual side effect: when he saw something red, blue, green, or any other chromatic hue, he could not name the object’s color.
Using RDS as a subject, a study publishing on September 3 in the journal Cell Reports looks at how language shapes human thinking. Neuroscientists and philosophers have long wrestled with the interaction between language and thought: do names shape the way we categorize what we perceive, or do they correspond to categories that arise from perception?
To name the color red, for instance, we think of a red item as one of many in a vaguely defined spectrum that encompasses the concept ‘red.’ In this sense, we perform an act of categorization each time we call something by its name — we group colors into discrete categories to identify mustard as a shade of yellow, for instance, or place teal in the blue family.
Senior author Paolo Bartolomeo, a neurologist at the Brain and Spine Institute in Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, says, ‘We perceive colors as continuous. There is no sharp boundary between, say, red and blue. And yet conceptually we group colors into categories associated with color names.
‘In our study, we had the unique opportunity to address the role of language in color categorization by testing a patient who couldn’t effectively name colors after a stroke,’ he says.
Many scientists believe categorizing colors depends on top-down input from the language system to the visual cortex. Color names are believed to be stored in the brain’s left hemisphere and to depend on language-related activity in the left side of the brain.
Conversely, these latest findings support recent neuroimaging studies suggesting that color categorization is distributed bilaterally in the human brain.
Viewing discs containing two colors from the same color category (e.g., two blue shades) or from different categories (e.g., brown and red), RDS was asked to identify same-category colors. He was also asked to name 34 color patches presented on a computer screen; eight of these patches were achromatic (white, black and grey), and 26 were chromatic.
Before his stroke, RDS perceived and named colors normally. After the stroke, an MRI revealed a lesion in the left region of his brain. This lesion apparently severed RDS’s memory of color names from his visual perception of colors and his language system. Yet RDS could still group most colors — even colors he couldn’t name — into categories such as dark or light or as being a mixture of other colors.
‘We were surprised by his ability to consistently name so-called achromatic colors such as black, white, and gray, as opposed to his impaired naming of chromatic ones such as red, blue, and green,’ says the first author of the study, PhD student Katarzyna Siuda-Krzywicka. This suggested that our language system may process black, white, and gray differently from chromatic colors. Such striking dissociations raise important questions about how different color-related signals are segregated and integrated in the brain, she says.
To ensure that RDS’s behavior did not reflect abnormal brain organization, the researchers compared the functioning of his unaffected brain areas to that of the same brain areas in healthy subjects and developed a non-verbal color-categorization test. ‘Our result — that his color categories were independent from language — could be generalized to healthy adults,’ Bartolomeo says.
Where do color categories come from, if not from language? Siuda-Krzywicka suggests that future studies could explore the implementation of color categorization in non-human primates as well as in the human brain and how language acquisition interacts with color categorization at stages of childhood development.”
Materials provided by Cell Press. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
- Katarzyna Siuda-Krzywicka, Christoph Witzel, Emma Chabani, Myriam Taga, Cécile Coste, Noëlla Cools, Sophie Ferrieux, Laurent Cohen, Tal Seidel Malkinson, Paolo Bartolomeo. Color Categorization Independent of Color Naming. Cell Reports, 2019; 28 (10): 2471 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.08.003
You may also find this article here at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190903111248.htm
Due to gravity slowing down time, it is believed that if an object were to not be submitted to any sort of gravitational pull, it would then not be bound to time.
On this idea, scientists at the University of Queensland are testing out a new quantum time theory where if an object were entirely left alone without any presence of gravity, even the observer’s gaze, it would transcend into a state of “superposition”, which is the sum of possible configurations, or arrangements, of the object.
The object’s presence could only be known then through all possible rest states, thereby creating a unique quantum state for it to exist…accessing the pure God essence of the said object. They say this could potentially accelerate computer mechanics as the computers would not be operating in a linear sequence, but rather off the time spectrum and in its very own perfectly present state of being.
As UQ researcher, Dr. Fabio Costa, says, “We are currently working towards quantum computers that — very simply speaking — could effectively jump through time to perform their operations much more efficiently than devices operating in fixed sequence in time, as we know it in our ‘normal’ world.”
Imagine this potentially being combined with A.I. technology!
And you may want to look into what is called Schrödinger’s cat. https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/schrodinger’s_cat.htm
“A University of Queensland-led international team of researchers say they have discovered ‘a new kind of quantum time order.’
UQ physicist Dr Magdalena Zych said the discovery arose from an experiment the team designed to bring together elements of the two big — but contradictory — physics theories developed in the past century.
‘Our proposal sought to discover: what happens when an object massive enough to influence the flow of time is placed in a quantum state?’ Dr Zych said.
She said Einstein’s theory described how the presence of a massive object slowed time.
‘Imagine two space ships, asked to fire at each other at a specified time while dodging the other’s attack,’ she said.
‘If either fires too early, it will destroy the other.’
‘In Einstein’s theory, a powerful enemy could use the principles of general relativity by placing a massive object — like a planet — closer to one ship to slow the passing of time.’
‘Because of the time lag, the ship furthest away from the massive object will fire earlier, destroying the other.’
Dr Zych said the second theory, of quantum mechanics, says any object can be in a state of ‘superposition’
‘This means it can be found in different states — think Schrodinger’s cat,’ she said.
Dr Zych said using the theory of quantum mechanics, if the enemy put the planet into a state of ‘quantum superposition,’ then time also should be disrupted.
‘There would be a new way for the order of events to unfold, with neither of the events being first or second — but in a genuine quantum state of being both first and second,’ she said.
UQ researcher Dr Fabio Costa said although ‘a superposition of planets’ as described in the paper — may never be possible, technology allowed a simulation of how time works in the quantum world — without using gravity.
‘Even if the experiment can never be done, the study is relevant for future technologies,’ Dr Costa said.
‘We are currently working towards quantum computers that — very simply speaking — could effectively jump through time to perform their operations much more efficiently than devices operating in fixed sequence in time, as we know it in our ‘normal’ world.’
Stevens Institute of Technology and the University of Vienna scientists were co-authors on Bell’s Theorem for Temporal Order, published in Nature Communications.”
- Magdalena Zych, Fabio Costa, Igor Pikovski, Časlav Brukner. Bell’s theorem for temporal order. Nature Communications, 2019; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11579-x
You may find this article here at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190826122010.htm
A British teenager has recently went both deaf and blind due to his “picky” junk food diet of only chips, crisps, white bread, and processed pork. Doctors have identified the condition as nutritional optic neuropathy that stems from his deficiency of proper nutrients in the body, namely vitamins B12 and D, copper, zinc, and selenium. But despite how much we may resent mom and her crazy wisdom, perhaps her making sure you eat your broccoli isn’t such a bad idea after all, eh?
“An extreme case of ‘fussy’ or ‘picky’ eating caused a young patient’s blindness, according to a new case report published today in Annals of Internal Medicine.
The University of Bristol researchers who examined the case recommend clinicians consider nutritional optic neuropathy in any patients with unexplained vision symptoms and poor diet, regardless of BMI, to avoid permanent vision loss.
Nutritional optic neuropathy is a dysfunction of the optic nerve which is important for vision. The condition is reversible, if caught early. But, left untreated, it can lead to permanent structural damage to the optic nerve and blindness.
In developed countries like the UK, the most common causes of nutritional optic neuropathy are bowel problems or drugs that interfere with the absorption of various important nutrients from the stomach. Purely dietary causes are less common because food supply is good, but elsewhere in the world, poverty, war and drought are linked to malnutrition and higher rates of nutritional optic neuropathy.
Clinician scientists from Bristol Medical School and the Bristol Eye Hospital examined the case of a teenage patient who first visited his GP complaining of tiredness. The link between his nutritional status and vision was not picked up until much later, and by then, his visual impairment had become permanent.
Aside from being a ‘fussy eater,’ the patient had a normal BMI and height and no visible signs of malnutrition and took no medications. Initial tests showed macrocytic anemia and low vitamin B12 levels, which were treated with vitamin B12 injections and dietary advice. When the patient visited the GP a year later, hearing loss and vision symptoms had developed, but no cause was found. By age 17, the patient’s vision had progressively worsened, to the point of blindness. Further investigation found the patient had vitamin B12 deficiency, low copper and selenium levels, a high zinc level, and markedly reduced vitamin D level and bone mineral density. Since starting secondary school, the patient had consumed a limited diet of chips, crisps, white bread, and some processed pork. By the time the patient’s condition was diagnosed, the patient had permanently impaired vision.
The researchers concluded that the patient’s ‘junk food’ diet and limited intake of nutritional vitamins and minerals resulted in the onset of nutritional optic neuropathy. They suggest the condition could become more prevalent in future, given the widespread consumption of ‘junk food’ at the expense of more nutritious options, and the rising popularity of veganism if the vegan diet is not supplemented appropriately to prevent vitamin B12 deficiency.
Dr Denize Atan, the study’s lead author and Consultant Senior Lecturer in Ophthalmology at Bristol Medical School and Clinical Lead for Neuro-ophthalmology at Bristol Eye Hospital, said: ‘Our vision has such an impact on quality of life, education, employment, social interactions, and mental health. This case highlights the impact of diet on visual and physical health, and the fact that calorie intake and BMI are not reliable indicators of nutritional status.’
The team recommends dietary history should be part of any routine clinical examination like asking about smoking and alcohol intake. This may avoid a diagnosis of nutritional optic neuropathy being missed or delayed as some associated visual loss can fully recover if the nutritional deficiencies are treated early enough.”
- Rhys Harrison, Vicki Warburton, Andrew Lux, Denize Atan. Blindness Caused by a Junk Food Diet. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2019; DOI: 10.7326/L19-0361
You may also find this article here: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190903091437.htm