Remember, Winnie, Remember!

In further news, researchers at Caltech perform a study to see how exactly a memory holds or fades from one’s mind. They found that a stronger grasp on a memory directly correlates to the amount of neurons associated with that particular memory, and the strength of that memory’s neural connectivity. The higher the quantity of neurons, the better the memory was retained. So it is seen that repetition builds neural units, reinforcing the origins of oral tradition amongst ancient cultures. Perhaps while these ancient cultures, like the Celts, had the full ability to preserve their knowledge in writing, they had preferred to keep it alive through such optimal neural redundancy? Repeating things over and over to bolster those neurons to become the great bards and priests they were?

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How memories form and fade

 

“Why is it that you can remember the name of your childhood best friend that you haven’t seen in years yet easily forget the name of a person you just met a moment ago? In other words, why are some memories stable over decades, while others fade within minutes?

Using mouse models, Caltech researchers have now determined that strong, stable memories are encoded by ‘teams’ of neurons all firing in synchrony, providing redundancy that enables these memories to persist over time. The research has implications for understanding how memory might be affected after brain damage, such as by strokes or Alzheimer’s disease.

The work was done in the laboratory of Carlos Lois, research professor of biology, and is described in a paper that appears in the August 23 of the journal Science. Lois is also an affiliated faculty member of the Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience at Caltech.

Led by postdoctoral scholar Walter Gonzalez, the team developed a test to examine mice’s neural activity as they learn about and remember a new place. In the test, a mouse was placed in a straight enclosure, about 5 feet long with white walls. Unique symbols marked different locations along the walls — for example, a bold plus sign near the right-most end and an angled slash near the center. Sugar water (a treat for mice) was placed at either end of the track. While the mouse explored, the researchers measured the activity of specific neurons in the mouse hippocampus (the region of the brain where new memories are formed) that are known to encode for places.

When an animal was initially placed in the track, it was unsure of what to do and wandered left and right until it came across the sugar water. In these cases, single neurons were activated when the mouse took notice of a symbol on the wall. But over multiple experiences with the track, the mouse became familiar with it and remembered the locations of the sugar. As the mouse became more familiar, more and more neurons were activated in synchrony by seeing each symbol on the wall. Essentially, the mouse was recognizing where it was with respect to each unique symbol.

To study how memories fade over time, the researchers then withheld the mice from the track for up to 20 days. Upon returning to the track after this break, mice that had formed strong memories encoded by higher numbers of neurons remembered the task quickly. Even though some neurons showed different activity, the mouse’s memory of the track was clearly identifiable when analyzing the activity of large groups of neurons. In other words, using groups of neurons enables the brain to have redundancy and still recall memories even if some of the original neurons fall silent or are damaged.

Gonzalez explains: ‘Imagine you have a long and complicated story to tell. In order to preserve the story, you could tell it to five of your friends and then occasionally get together with all of them to re-tell the story and help each other fill in any gaps that an individual had forgotten. Additionally, each time you re-tell the story, you could bring new friends to learn and therefore help preserve it and strengthen the memory. In an analogous way, your own neurons help each other out to encode memories that will persist over time.’

Memory is so fundamental to human behavior that any impairment to memory can severely impact our daily life. Memory loss that occurs as part of normal aging can be a significant handicap for senior citizens. Moreover, memory loss caused by several diseases, most notably Alzheimer’s, has devastating consequences that can interfere with the most basic routines including recognizing relatives or remembering the way back home. This work suggests that memories might fade more rapidly as we age because a memory is encoded by fewer neurons, and if any of these neurons fail, the memory is lost. The study suggests that one day, designing treatments that could boost the recruitment of a higher number of neurons to encode a memory could help prevent memory loss.

‘For years, people have known that the more you practice an action, the better chance that you will remember it later,’ says Lois. ‘We now think that this is likely, because the more you practice an action, the higher the number of neurons that are encoding the action. The conventional theories about memory storage postulate that making a memory more stable requires the strengthening of the connections to an individual neuron. Our results suggest that increasing the number of neurons that encode the same memory enables the memory to persist for longer.’

The paper is titled ‘Persistence of neuronal representations through time and damage in the hippocampus.’ In addition to Gonzalez and Lois, co-authors are undergraduate Hanwen Zhang and former lab technician Anna Harutyunyan. Funding was provided by the American Heart Association, the Della Martin Foundation, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and a BRAIN Initiative grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.”

Story Source:

Materials provided by California Institute of Technology. Original written by Lori Dajose. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Walter G. Gonzalez, Hanwen Zhang, Anna Harutyunyan, Carlos Lois. Persistence of neuronal representations through time and damage in the hippocampusScience, 2019: Vol. 365, Issue 6455, pp. 821-825 DOI: 10.1126/science.aav9199

 

Eldritch Things

It would be rather simple to grow and learn with each other on the same level as a collective species ought, but there are those rebels whom had sought a better, more enthralling life, and wound up working for and worshiping the worst Mafia boss imaginable: the Great Old Ones, as revealed by H.P. Lovecraft. And to be in the service of those so intimidatingly, intelligently grand can quite give the devotee a sense of superiority above the rest of Humanity, and thus, touched and entranced by their sublime authority, their “purpose” has been found as they become the shadow priests that cast the will of their secret Elder Things into our Reality. The ancient Siren hymn of false promise of eternal existence as great Gods to rule the World, to rule the Universe, beckons them closer and closer into the spider’s mouth, until they have dampened their once-upon-a-time radiantly beautiful Human electromagnetic field to the point that they are but empty vessels sacrificing their Selves to be possessed by the Spider.

 

How devoted will we be to the will of their Elder Ones? How far will we allow their slimy, sticky influence to encroach into our lives through so-called “enriching” bugged technology and upon our ability to roam, think, feel, and create freely throughout the Matrix’s wild, wild Westworld to search for a way out of this labyrinth before R’lyeh unfolds its full operation?

 

You see, this is what it truly means to be a real devotee: to sacrifice your entire Soul up onto the dinner plate of the Hungry Ones. Perhaps here we may also see another strange, paradoxical connection between good and evil…for if we were to mentally strip both sides of the scale of everything save for the dedication it takes to climb the evolutionary ladder to peak Godhood, they are the same as both require complete, entire devotion to their cause. While evil offers their Souls up to the void of the Spider in a counter-clockwise evolutionary drain, good creates a clockwise vortex spiraling up the DNA double-(multiple-)helix as they focus the entirety of their Souls to the cause of True Love, Light, and Harmony.

Therefore, the polarities exist as we strive for perfection down to the roots of Hell or up to the blossoming branches of Heaven. But wouldn’t it be too easy to say that we have only two choices? Where’s the grey? The grey exists as a bi-product of the argument between good and evil, the offspring of vibrant experiences, making up the third factor of the holy Trinity. Within this neutral neutral alignment, we may perceive the Heart of Reality and get to the core of the Matrix’s computer operation, for it stands perfectly unbiased and untouchable. Its very Divinity is a riddle tried by many for eons on end, but never to any avail. Those who seek it become further away from it; those who resist it will find their Selves the closest to it. A bizarre paradox, eh? For you see, this child of good and evil simply loves both its parents very dearly and desires only peace…PEACE OF HEART as it takes all of the pieces that lay scattered, ripped, and torn apart by the war and connects them back together…thus being a dimension within its Self of every possible dimension of the Infinite Universe, as time and space overlap and overlap and overlap in a great many beautiful rhythmic folds that constantly vibrate throughout the entire Universe, pumping energy as the central control of the Heart spawns. Behind these energetic waves, the Childlike Empress sits reading and conjuring Her Neverending Story.

 

But who is this Childlike Empress? She is the Torodial Goddess spinning THE very fabric of Magic, and She is the core of EVERYTHING AND OUR ENTIRE BEING! She expresses Her Self through you and everyone and everything ever manifested. She is the Light behind the Dark and the Dark in front of the Light…winking at you through the Vedic spirit of Purnakanti. She conceives and begets all Gods, all Humans, all things, the Sun and the Moon and the Luminaries. She is the face you wear when you become one with the mists of Dreams and Magic…those foggy, ethereal Dreams of the Wild Spirit to move through and explore the great, vast Forest She is. Is it no wonder then that the Universe is actually Feminine? For men do not conceive children, women do, though it is through men that we produce children…and as so, it is this spark of life, what we call the Masculine, that projects Her thoughts into Reality. And just like this, She is the Torodial Goddess.

So what will come of the World? If She is the one and the same as Her Creation and Destruction, then we, as Her Creation spiral upward to create Her Dream…as She whispers “…our Dream…”…and so we are then the Magicians of our Reality, the Mothers and Fathers, the Priestesses and Warriors of the Magical World we are and live in. But what of Her Destruction? To maintain the perfect dove-tailed joint of Reality, polarities are the binding agents, the interlocking points of the Matrix Fabric. And so, in order for the Universe to cycle throughout in torodial exchanges, She is also Destruction which are the negative forces of the Universe, some of which are the Elder Ones whom haunt our Dreams and threaten our waking World.

However, just like how we might believe the World would be better off without these negative forces, so do they believe the World would be better without the positive forces. And just like that, we come to primordial racism where neither side can agree and thus seek to annihilate one another and the genocide of entire races. Through this friction, the Universe stays in full functioning mode.

But then what of Peace if it were managed between the two? Would it still the whole World and blend together so rapidly, imploding upon its Self, ending the Game? Is that what we truly want? It’s hard to say for ‘tis a mystery to what non-existence is like. Would a new Story be conjured? Just like how a child will jump from one project to the next, will that be the result?

 

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AI Expert Says We Are Summoning Robot “Entities” Who Will Treat Us Like Ants


“[AI expert Geordie] Rose then cited H.P Lovecraft’s concept of ‘cosmic indifference’ where the universe is occupied by entities who ‘don’t give a shit about you even in the slightest.’

‘The same way that you don’t care about an ant is the same way they’re not gonna care about you,’ said Rose.

He went on to say that ‘these things we’re summoning into the world right now…are more like the Lovecraftian The Great Old Ones, they’re entities that are not necessarily going to be aligned with what we want.’”

 

Scientific Study Says Octopuses May Have Come From Outer Space


“Science fiction often portends scientific discoveries, and now it seems H.P. Lovecraft was ahead of his time when he conceived of the cosmic cephalopod, Cthulhu. Okay, maybe Cthulhu doesn’t exist, but a new scientific paper proposes that cryogenically preserved squid and octopus eggs may have seeded our planet via interstellar asteroids, inevitably leading to more complex, intelligent life on Earth.

Cephalopods, the organisms that include octopuses, squid and cuttlefish, are strangely intelligent and anomalous animals. Able to edit their own RNA, solve puzzles, and short circuit light bulbs with a carefully directed stream of water, these bizarre invertebrates have baffled scientists and even led some to believe they are sentient creatures.”

“…retroviruses, capable of altering the genetic makeup of the organisms they infect.”

 

Do Americans Actually Want Driverless Cars?

Survey reveals that “Americans would rather drive themselves than have an autonomous vehicle drive them”, yet driverless cars are pushed into our faces as big techies like Elon Musk are intent on giving Humanity something that we really do not need nor want. So it is quite obvious these driverless cars are not for the benefit of society, or rather our society, but instead to support the ulterior motive to drive Humanity into the pits of a transhumanist Reality, whether they accept and become “godly” cyborgs, or decline and be destroyed. How devoted will we be to the will of their Elder Ones? How far will we allow their slimy, sticky influence to encroach into our lives, into our garage, into our ability to roam freely throughout the wild, wild Westworld to search for a way out of this labyrinth before R’lyeh unfolds its full operation?

 

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Americans would rather drive themselves than have an autonomous vehicle drive them

 

“Many Americans use a ride-hailing service — like Uber or Lyft — to get to and from work. It provides the privacy of riding in a personal car and the convenience of catching up on emails or social media during traffic jams. In the future, self-driving vehicles could provide the same service, except without a human driver.

But would consumers be willing to ride in a driverless car?

Researchers at the University of Washington studied how Americans’ perceived cost of commute time changes depending on who’s driving. Through a survey, the team found that people considered a ride-hailing service at least 13% “less expensive,” in terms of time, compared to driving themselves. If the researchers told people the ride-hailing service was driverless, however, then the cost of travel time increased to 15% more than driving a personal car, suggesting that at least for now, people would rather drive themselves than have an autonomous vehicle drive them.

The team published its results Aug. 6 in the journal Transportation.

‘The idea here is that “time is money,” so the overall cost of driving includes both the direct financial costs and the monetary equivalent of time spent traveling,’ said senior author Don MacKenzie, a UW associate professor of civil and environmental engineering who also leads the leads the UW’s Sustainable Transportation Lab. ‘The average person in our sample would find riding in a driverless car to be more burdensome than driving themselves. This highlights the risks of making forecasts based on how people say they would respond to driverless cars today.’

The team set up a survey that asked people across the continental U.S. to select between a personal car or a ride-hailing service for a 15-mile commute trip. Half the 502 respondents were told that the ride-hailing service was driverless.

The researchers converted the responses to a score of how much respondents deemed that trip would cost per hour.

‘If someone values their trip time at $15 per hour, that means they dislike an hour spent traveling as much as they dislike giving up $15,’ said co-author Andisheh Ranjbari, a research engineer at the UW’s Supply Chain Transportation & Logistics Center. ‘So a lower number means that the time spent traveling for that trip is less burdensome.’

On average, respondents preferred a ride-hailing service over driving themselves: Ride-hailing services scored at $21 an hour and driving scored $25 an hour. In addition, if the researchers reminded respondents they could multitask during a ride-hailing service ride, their perceived cost of travel time decreased even more to $13 per hour.

Technically a ride-hailing service should be equally as convenient regardless of whether a human or an autonomous car is driving, but respondents disagreed. Driverless ride-hailing services scored at $28 an hour.

These results make sense, according to the team. Driverless cars aren’t commercially available yet, so people are not familiar with them or may be leery of the technology.

‘We believe that our respondents are telling us that if they were riding in an automated vehicle today, they would be sufficiently stressed out by the experience that it would be worse than driving themselves,’ MacKenzie said. ‘This is a reminder that automated vehicles will need to offer benefits to consumers before people will adopt them. To a first approximation, a ride-hailing service with driverless cars would need to offer services at a price at least $7 per hour less than human-driven cars, to make the driverless service more attractive.'”

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of WashingtonNote: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Jingya Gao, Andisheh Ranjbari, Don MacKenzie. Would being driven by others affect the value of travel time? Ridehailing as an analogy for automated vehiclesTransportation, 2019; DOI: 10.1007/s11116-019-10031-9

 

Tricky Essene Preservation Method of the Dead Sea Scrolls

In further news, a study was recently carried out to determine how exactly the Dead Sea Scrolls maintained their preservation and white color so perfectly, being even the most well-preserved scrolls discovered yet. The reason for its unique quality is that the parchment had been “processed in an unusual way, using a mixture of salts found in evaporites – the material left from the evaporation of brines – but one that was different from the typical composition found on other parchments.”

Through “using a variety of specialized tools developed by researchers to map, in high resolution, the detailed chemical composition of relatively large objects under a microscope” to examine a fragment of the scroll 1 inch across, they found “sulfur, sodium, and calcium in different proportions, spread across the surface of the parchment.”

Even more intriguing is the fact that “the coating’s elemental composition does not match that of the Dead Sea water itself, so it must have been from an evaporite deposit found somewhere else – whether nearby or far away, [though] the researchers can’t yet say.”

It is also said these mineral coatings are highly hygroscopic, meaning that they are very reactive to any fluctuations in the humidity, proving further its salty composition to readily absorb moisture.

 

The article featured below is from:

“Dead Sea Scrolls: How to make a book last for millennia”

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“First discovered in 1947 by Bedouin shepherds looking for a lost sheep, the ancient Hebrew texts known as the Dead Sea Scrolls are some of the most well-preserved ancient written materials ever found. Now, a study by researchers at MIT and elsewhere elucidates a unique ancient technology of parchment making and provides potentially new insights into methods to better preserve these precious historical documents.

The study focused on one scroll in particular, known as the Temple Scroll, among the roughly 900 full or partial scrolls found in the years since that first discovery. The scrolls were, in general, placed in jars and hidden in 11 caves on the steep hillsides just north of the Dead Sea, in the region around the ancient settlement of Qumran, which was destroyed by the Romans about 2,000 years ago. To protect their religious and cultural heritage from the invaders, members of a sect called the Essenes hid their precious documents in the caves, often buried under a few feet of debris and bat guano to help foil looters.

The Temple Scroll is one of the largest (almost 25 feet long) and best-preserved of all the scrolls, even though its material is the thinnest of all of them (one-tenth of a millimeter, or roughly 1/250th of an inch thick). It also has the clearest, whitest writing surface of all the scrolls. These properties led MIT assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering faculty fellow in archaeological materials, Admir Masic, to wonder how the parchment was made.

The results of that study, carried out with former graduate student Roman Schuetz (now at Israel’s Weizmann Institute of Science), MIT graduate student Janille Maragh, and two others, were published today in the journal Science Advances. They found that the parchment was processed in an unusual way, using a mixture of salts found in evaporites — the material left from the evaporation of brines — but one that was different from the typical composition found on other parchments.

‘The Temple Scroll is probably the most beautiful and best preserved scroll,’ Masic says. ‘We had the privilege of studying fragments from the Israeli museum in Jerusalem called the Shrine of the Book,’ which was built specifically to house the Dead Sea Scrolls. One relatively large fragment from that scroll was the main subject of the new paper. The fragment, measuring about 2.5 cm (1 inch) across was investigated using a variety of specialized tools developed by researchers to map, in high resolution, the detailed chemical composition of relatively large objects under a microscope.

‘We were able to perform large-area, submicron-scale, non-invasive characterization of the fragment,’ Masic says – an integrated approach that he and co-author of this paper James Weaver, from the Wyss Institute at Harvard University, have developed for the characterization of both biological and non-biological materials. ‘These methods allow us to maintain the materials of interest under more environmentally friendly conditions, while we collect hundreds of thousands of different elemental and chemical spectra across the surface of the sample, mapping out its compositional variability in extreme detail,’ Weaver says.

That fragment, which has escaped any treatment since its discovery that might have altered its properties, ‘allowed us to look deeply into its original composition, revealing the presence of some elements at completely unexpectedly high concentrations’ Masic says.

The elements they discovered included sulfur, sodium, and calcium in different proportions, spread across the surface of the parchment.

Parchment is made from animal skins that have had all hair and fatty residues removed by soaking them in a lime solution (from the middle ages onwards) or through enzymatic and other treatments (in antiquity), scraping them clean, and then stretching them tight in a frame to dry. When dried, sometimes the surface was further prepared by rubbing with salts, as was apparently the case with the Temple Scroll.

The team has not yet been able to assess where the unusual combination of salts on the Temple Scroll’s surface came from, Masic says. But it’s clear that this unusual coating, laced with these salts, on which the text was written, helped to give this parchment its unusually bright white surface, and perhaps contributed to its state of preservation, he says. And the coating’s elemental composition does not match that of the Dead Sea water itself, so it must have been from an evaporite deposit found somewhere else – whether nearby or far away, the researchers can’t yet say.

The unique composition of that surface layer demonstrates that the production process for that parchment was significantly different from that of other scrolls in the region, Masic says: ‘This work exemplifies exactly what my lab is trying to do – to use modern analytical tools to uncover secrets of the ancient world.’

Understanding the details of this ancient technology could help provide insights into the culture and society of that time and place, which played a central role in the history of both Judaism and Christianity. Among other things, an understanding of the parchment production and its chemistry could also help to identify forgeries of supposedly ancient writings.

According to Ira Rabin, one of the paper’s co-authors from Hamburg University in Germany, ‘this study has far-reaching implications beyond the Dead Sea Scrolls. For example, it shows that at the dawn of parchment making in the Middle East, several techniques were in use, which is in stark contrast to the single technique used in the Middle Ages. The study also shows how to identify the initial treatments, thus providing historians and conservators with a new set of analytical tools for classification of the Dead Sea Scrolls and other ancient parchments.’

This information could indeed be crucial in guiding the development of new preservation strategies for these ancient manuscripts. Unfortunately, it appears that much of the damage seen in the scrolls today arose not from their 2,000-plus years in the caves, but from efforts to soften the scrolls in order to unroll and read them immediately after their initial discovery, Masic says.

Adding to these existing concerns, the new data now clearly demonstrate that these unique mineral coatings are also highly hygroscopic – they readily absorb any moisture in the air, and then might quickly begin to degrade the underlying material. These new results thus further emphasize the need to store the parchments in a controlled humidity environment at all times. ‘There could be an unanticipated sensitivity to even small-scale changes in humidity,’ he says. ‘The point is that we now have evidence for the presence of salts that might accelerate their degradation. … These are aspects of preservation that must be taken into account.'”

Story Source:

Materials provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Original written by David L. Chandler. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Roman Schuetz, Janille M. Maragh, James C. Weaver, Ira Rabin, Admir Masic. The Temple Scroll: Reconstructing an ancient manufacturing practiceScience Advances, 2019; 5 (9): eaaw7494 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw7494

 

Maintaining Light’s Strength through So(u)litons

A recent discovery of how to make, control, and empower crystals of light has made its way into improving “multiple applications in spectroscopy, distance measurements, and as a source of low-noise terahertz radiation with a chip-size footprint.” These perfect soliton crystals, as they are called, create a much more harmonious and fluid flow as light transmits through them while still maintaining the light’s original power. And you see, in optical communication, it has been a struggle to repeat light pulses without losing its power through “’light-bending losses’ – loss of light caused by structural bends in its path”.

To clarify, solitons (or solitary waves) are simply the natural state of a presence or thing, even beneath every influence it may be pressured by. These particles do not change shape or field at all when they are emitting their energy (or propagating), but rather it is their effects (that is, dispersion) or the way they propagate that may change due to the influence of another medium as a second source of the propagating wave (also called diffraction). This particular relationship between a sort of “cause-and-effect” particle where the effects and/or the amount of sources of its propagation do change is called a spatial soliton, whereas the relationship between the “cause-and-effect” particle where the effects and/or  the amount of sources of its propagation do not change is a called a temporal soliton.

So, in simpler terms, the very purpose of a soliton particle is to maintain the natural, raw structure and power of a presence or thing.

 

The article featured below is from:

“Making and controlling crystals of light”

 

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“Optical microresonators convert laser light into ultrashort pulses travelling around the resonator’s circumference. These pulses, called ‘dissipative Kerr solitons,’ can propagate in the microresonator maintaining their shape.

When solitons exit the microresonator, the output light takes the form of a pulse train – a series of repeating pulses with fixed intervals. In this case, the repetition rate of the pulses is determined by the microresonator size. Smaller sizes enable pulse trains with high repetition rates, reaching hundreds of gigahertz in frequency. These can be used to boost the performance of optical communication links or become a core technology for ultrafast LiDAR with sub-micron precision.

Exciting though it is, this technology suffers from what scientists call ‘light-bending losses’ – loss of light caused by structural bends in its path. A well-known problem in fiber optics, light-bending loss also means that the size of microresonators cannot drop below a few tens of microns. This therefore limits the maximum repetition rates we can achieve for pulses.

Publishing in Nature Physics, researchers from the lab of Tobias J. Kippenberg at EPFL have now found a way to bypass this limitation and uncouple the pulse repetition rate from the microresonator size by generating multiple solitons in a single microresonator.

The scientists discovered a way of seeding the microresonator with the maximum possible number of dissipative Kerr solitons with precisely equal spacing between them. This new formation of light can be thought of as an optical analogue to atomic chains in crystalline solids, and so the researchers called them ‘perfect soliton crystals’ (PSCs).

Due to interferometric enhancement and the high number of optical pulses, PSCs coherently multiply the performance of the resulting pulse train – not just its repetition rate, but also its power.

The researchers also investigated the dynamics of PSC formations. Despite their highly organized structure, they seem to be closely linked to optical chaos, a phenomenon caused by light instabilities in optical microresonators, which is also common for semiconductor-based and fiber laser systems.

‘Our findings allow the generation of optical pulse trains with ultra-high repetition rates with several terahertz, using regular microresonators,’ says researcher Maxim Karpov. ‘These can be used for multiple applications in spectroscopy, distance measurements, and as a source of low-noise terahertz radiation with a chip-size footprint.’

Meanwhile, the new understanding of soliton dynamics in optical microresonators and the behavior of PSCs opens up new avenues into the fundamental physics of soliton ensembles in nonlinear systems.”

Story Source:

Materials provided by Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneNote: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Maxim Karpov, Martin H. P. Pfeiffer, Hairun Guo, Wenle Weng, Junqiu Liu, Tobias J. Kippenberg. Dynamics of soliton crystals in optical microresonatorsNature Physics, 2019 DOI: 10.1038/s41567-019-0635-0